In Vitro Neurotoxicology: Principles and Challenges (Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology)

 Pharmacology, Toxicology  Comments Off on In Vitro Neurotoxicology: Principles and Challenges (Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Jun 202019
 

Well-respected leaders in the field of in vitro neurotoxicology take a fresh look at their own and other’s work, critically and comparatively analyzing it across experimental systems and toxicants, and synthesizing essential principles for in vitro neurotoxicity testing. Neurotoxicants of significance to human health are emphasized, especially those for which metabolism and dose-responses are well well studied both in vivo and in vitro: lead, mercury, organophosphorous insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxin, ethanol, and endogenous proteins. The goal is to set out new concepts and research directions that will
hasten significant improvement in the methods and systems for in vitro neurotoxicity testing.
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Ovarian Toxicology (Target Organ Toxicology Series)

 Toxicology  Comments Off on Ovarian Toxicology (Target Organ Toxicology Series)
May 132019
 

In recent years, there has been an alarming increase in environmental by-products that may be harmful to ovarian function. Along with this dangerous situation, the modern trend toward delaying motherhood poses immediate concerns regarding the long-term impact of environmental risks on human fertility. The uncertainty of our reproductive future intensifies the need for a single reference that investigates the chemicals with the potential to jeopardize fertility. The only known text that deals specifically with toxicity in the ovary, Ovarian Toxicology updates our current understanding of the effects of environmental chemicals on ovarian function. This new title in the Target Organ Toxicology Series presents an overview of ovarian physiology, examines the key ovarian target sites, assesses the effects of specific chemicals demonstrated in animal studies, and evaluates related human epidemiological data. Featuring the most complete review available of ovarian metabolism of xenobiotics, chapters also discuss ovarian cancer and modeling and testing for ovarian effects. With its clear handling of data and issues that are crucial to fertility studies, this comprehensive exploration of ovarian toxicology identifies the realistic risks for damage that our environment has the potential to inflict. It will be welcomed by toxicologists and ovarian physiologists, those in the pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies, and postgraduate researchers striving to safeguard women’s fertility and ensure our reproductive future.
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Toxicities of Radiation Treatment for Breast Cancer: Risks and Management Strategies

 Oncology, Radiology, Toxicology  Comments Off on Toxicities of Radiation Treatment for Breast Cancer: Risks and Management Strategies
Apr 252019
 


This book is a comprehensive guide to breast toxicity. Adjuvant radiation remains standard for a majority of women who undergo breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer, and indications for post-mastectomy and regional lymph node irradiation have also broadened with recent publications. At the same time, locoregional recurrence has declined and survival has improved in recent decades. In the current era of excellent breast cancer outcomes, then, considering the balance between toxicity and outcomes becomes paramount. Several recent editorials recommend considering toxicity against the potential benefit of adjuvant radiation in tailoring radiation decisions for individual patients. Thus, a clear understanding of the potential toxicities of adjuvant radiation for breast cancer is critical to optimizing outcomes in modern breast cancer management. Here, authors have collected recent data focused on toxicity of treatment that provide an opportunity for improving this optimization. Chapters cover both acute and late toxicity of radiation for breast cancer, including tailored risk assessment for each of these potential toxicities, considerations for including risk of toxicity in management decisions, and toxicity management strategies. This is an ideal guide for radiation oncologists, residents, and oncologists seeking to optimize care for their patients.
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Comparative Pathophysiology and Toxicology of Cyclooxygenases

 Pathology, Physiology, Toxicology  Comments Off on Comparative Pathophysiology and Toxicology of Cyclooxygenases
Apr 172019
 


The first thorough review of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including their toxicity mechanisms and toxicopathological risks

Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are enzymes responsible for the formation of an important class of biological mediators called prostanoids. Prostanoids such as prostaglandins mediate inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions. For those suffering from inflammation and pain, the pharmacological inhibition of COXs, with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, can provide relief. Yet the use of NSAIDs can trigger toxicological effects as well, leading to potential health risks.

Comparative Pathophysiology and Toxicology of Cyclooxygenases provides a comprehensive overview of how COX inhibitors affect various bodily systems, specifically the toxicity mechanisms triggered when the COX enzyme is inhibited. The book provides an introduction to the discovery of cyclooxygenases, their use as therapeutic agents, as well as an historical perspective. Shedding light on the differences in expression, pathophysiology, and toxicology of COX inhibitors across species, the book offers a systematic examination of the effects and pathophysiology of COX inhibitors and their mechanisms of toxicity, beginning with the GI tract. Subsequent chapters cover:

The pathophysiology of COX inhibition on bone, tendon, and ligament healing
COX inhibitors and renal system pathophysiology and mechanisms of toxicity
The pathophysiologic role of COX inhibition in the ocular system
COX inhibition and the respiratory and cardiovascular systems

The book also sheds light on the latest research devoted to developing COX inhibitors with no adverse side-effects. The first book to offer a thorough comparative look at the toxicological effects of COX inhibitors throughout the body, this invaluable resource will help advance the research and development of safer and more effective COX drugs.

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Nanotoxicology: Progress toward Nanomedicine, Second Edition

 Toxicology  Comments Off on Nanotoxicology: Progress toward Nanomedicine, Second Edition
Mar 242019
 

Since the first publication of this book in 2007, the field of nanoscience and nanomedicine continues to grow substantially. This second edition, Nanotoxicology: Progress toward Nanomedicine, enlists internationally recognized experts to document the continuing development and rationale for the safe design of engineered nanomaterials (ENM). This includes new improved characterization endpoints, screening, and detection methods for in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing. These tools also contribute greatly to nanosafety research applied to nanomedicines.
Topics include
• The impacts of nanotechnology on biomedicine, including functionalization for tissue-specific targeting, the biointeractions of multifunctional nanoparticle-based therapy, and the ability to control specific physicochemical properties of nanoparticles
• The requirements for proper detection, measurement, and assessment both for workplace exposure and in consumer products—with a focus on potential health and safety implications
• Predictive modeling, using quantitative nanostructure activity relationships to predict the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials in the body
• Specific methodologies, imaging, and techniques to assess nanomaterials from the manufacturing process to nanomedicine applications
• Tools for assessing nanoparticle toxicity and the limitations of detection methods for assessing toxicity in both in vivo and in vitro systems and at the single cell and tissue levels
• Toxicity of nanomaterials to specific organ systems, cell–based targeting to tumors, and other biomedical applications
• The difficulty of conducting risk assessments and the need for addressing knowledge gaps, especially with long-term studies
• A roadmap for future research
The development of nanotechnology-based products must be complemented with appropriate validated methods to assess, monitor, manage, and reduce the potential risks of ENM to human health and the environment. This volume provides a cogent survey of advances in this area by a well-respected and diverse group of international scientists.

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Nanomedicines and Nanoproducts: Applications, Disposition, and Toxicology in the Human Body

 Toxicology  Comments Off on Nanomedicines and Nanoproducts: Applications, Disposition, and Toxicology in the Human Body
Mar 212019
 

Nanomedicines and Nanoproducts: Applications, Disposition, and Toxicology in the Human Body provides a detailed overview of the disposition of nanoproducts within the body, with a special focus on the respiratory and olfactory routes of nanoproduct administration, buccal exposure and the ingestion of nanoproducts, the integumentary system (formed by the skin, hair, nails, and associated glands), the ocular route, the systemic route, and toxicology as it relates to the nanoscale world.
Offering an interdisciplinary, big-picture view of the current and future state of nanotechnology, this book:
• Identifies key points for the entry of nanoproducts, nanomedicines, and other nanoscale structures into the body
• Reviews the bodily administration and subsequent disposition of nanoproducts via various exposure routes
• Describes the intravenous route of administration for the therapeutic management of ocular disease
• Discusses practical nanoproduct and nanomedicine applications, disposition, and toxicology
• Summarizes various toxicological principles and the testing of nanoproducts
Nanomedicines and Nanoproducts: Applications, Disposition, and Toxicology in the Human Body addresses the scope of practical nanoparticle applications in academic research as well as industrial investigation, where “practical” is defined as advantageous in all aspects of nanoproduct disposition, efficacy, and toxicology. The book’s goal is to introduce potentially beneficial applications and exciting topics regarding nanoproducts to a variety of professional and general readers.

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Handbook of Nanotoxicology, Nanomedicine and Stem Cell Use in Toxicology

 Toxicology  Comments Off on Handbook of Nanotoxicology, Nanomedicine and Stem Cell Use in Toxicology
Mar 172019
 

The Handbook of Nanotoxicology, Nanomedicine and Stem Cell Use in Toxicology provides an insight into the current trends and future directions of research in these rapidly developing scientific fields. Written by leading scientists and experts, the Handbook will be of interest to various scientific disciplines including toxicology, medicine, and pharmacology, as well as food, drug, and other regulatory sciences.
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Molecular Toxicology in Caenorhabditis elegans

 Toxicology  Comments Off on Molecular Toxicology in Caenorhabditis elegans
Mar 082019
 

This book will focus on the molecular basis of oxidative stress induced by toxicants or stresses and various molecular signalling pathways in regulating the toxicity of toxicants or stresses in Caenorhabditis elegans. It will also cover the discussion on the aspects of response signals, G-protein coupled receptors and ion channels, specific molecular signals, and epigenetic signals involved in the regulation of toxicity from toxicants or stresses. The molecular basis for adaptive response for transgenerational toxicity of environmental toxicants or stresses will be further discussed. Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a classic model animal with well-described genetic and developmental backgrounds based on the study of life science, and has been further successfully and widely used in both toxicity assessment and toxicological study of various environmental toxicants or stresses. Based on related available data, this book aims at providing a systematic understanding of the knowledge system of molecular toxicology in C. elegans.
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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 237

 Toxicology  Comments Off on Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 237
Mar 082019
 

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.

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Cadmium Toxicity: New Aspects in Human Disease, Rice Contamination, and Cytotoxicity

 Toxicology  Comments Off on Cadmium Toxicity: New Aspects in Human Disease, Rice Contamination, and Cytotoxicity
Feb 282019
 

This volume focuses on cadmium (Cd) exposure, its effects on human health, the mechanism of Cd accumulation and the development of mitigation technologies. Further, it discusses clinical, epidemiological, agricultural, toxicological, and biochemical aspects of Cd pollution and presents recent biochemical studies on molecular mechanisms of Cd cytotoxicity and cellular transport as well as the mechanism of Cd-induced disturbances in phosphorus (P) metabolism. It also provides insights into the pathophysiology of itai-itai disease, a serious condition caused by Cd pollution. Cadmium -New Aspects in Human Disease, Rice Contamination, and Cytotoxicity- is a valuable resource for scientists involved in heavy metal toxicology, botanical sciences, and regulatory sciences. Addressing the features of Cd pollution in the past and in the present, as well as future perspectives, this is a must-have book for students, researchers and practitioners interested in global and local metal pollution.
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