Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are enzymes responsible for the formation of an important class of biological mediators called prostanoids. Prostanoids such as prostaglandins mediate inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions. For those suffering from inflammation and pain, the pharmacological inhibition of COXs, with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, can provide relief. Yet the use of NSAIDs can trigger toxicological effects as well, leading to potential health risks.
Comparative Pathophysiology and Toxicology of Cyclooxygenases provides a comprehensive overview of how COX inhibitors affect various bodily systems, specifically the toxicity mechanisms triggered when the COX enzyme is inhibited. The book provides an introduction to the discovery of cyclooxygenases, their use as therapeutic agents, as well as an historical perspective. Shedding light on the differences in expression, pathophysiology, and toxicology of COX inhibitors across species, the book offers a systematic examination of the effects and pathophysiology of COX inhibitors and their mechanisms of toxicity, beginning with the GI tract. Subsequent chapters cover:
The pathophysiology of COX inhibition on bone, tendon, and ligament healing
COX inhibitors and renal system pathophysiology and mechanisms of toxicity
The pathophysiologic role of COX inhibition in the ocular system
COX inhibition and the respiratory and cardiovascular systems
The book also sheds light on the latest research devoted to developing COX inhibitors with no adverse side-effects. The first book to offer a thorough comparative look at the toxicological effects of COX inhibitors throughout the body, this invaluable resource will help advance the research and development of safer and more effective COX drugs.
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Since the first publication of this book in 2007, the field of nanoscience and nanomedicine continues to grow substantially. This second edition, Nanotoxicology: Progress toward Nanomedicine, enlists internationally recognized experts to document the continuing development and rationale for the safe design of engineered nanomaterials (ENM). This includes new improved characterization endpoints, screening, and detection methods for in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing. These tools also contribute greatly to nanosafety research applied to nanomedicines.
• The impacts of nanotechnology on biomedicine, including functionalization for tissue-specific targeting, the biointeractions of multifunctional nanoparticle-based therapy, and the ability to control specific physicochemical properties of nanoparticles
• The requirements for proper detection, measurement, and assessment both for workplace exposure and in consumer products—with a focus on potential health and safety implications
• Predictive modeling, using quantitative nanostructure activity relationships to predict the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials in the body
• Specific methodologies, imaging, and techniques to assess nanomaterials from the manufacturing process to nanomedicine applications
• Tools for assessing nanoparticle toxicity and the limitations of detection methods for assessing toxicity in both in vivo and in vitro systems and at the single cell and tissue levels
• Toxicity of nanomaterials to specific organ systems, cell–based targeting to tumors, and other biomedical applications
• The difficulty of conducting risk assessments and the need for addressing knowledge gaps, especially with long-term studies
• A roadmap for future research
The development of nanotechnology-based products must be complemented with appropriate validated methods to assess, monitor, manage, and reduce the potential risks of ENM to human health and the environment. This volume provides a cogent survey of advances in this area by a well-respected and diverse group of international scientists.
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Nanomedicines and Nanoproducts: Applications, Disposition, and Toxicology in the Human Body provides a detailed overview of the disposition of nanoproducts within the body, with a special focus on the respiratory and olfactory routes of nanoproduct administration, buccal exposure and the ingestion of nanoproducts, the integumentary system (formed by the skin, hair, nails, and associated glands), the ocular route, the systemic route, and toxicology as it relates to the nanoscale world.
Offering an interdisciplinary, big-picture view of the current and future state of nanotechnology, this book:
• Identifies key points for the entry of nanoproducts, nanomedicines, and other nanoscale structures into the body
• Reviews the bodily administration and subsequent disposition of nanoproducts via various exposure routes
• Describes the intravenous route of administration for the therapeutic management of ocular disease
• Discusses practical nanoproduct and nanomedicine applications, disposition, and toxicology
• Summarizes various toxicological principles and the testing of nanoproducts
Nanomedicines and Nanoproducts: Applications, Disposition, and Toxicology in the Human Body addresses the scope of practical nanoparticle applications in academic research as well as industrial investigation, where “practical” is defined as advantageous in all aspects of nanoproduct disposition, efficacy, and toxicology. The book’s goal is to introduce potentially beneficial applications and exciting topics regarding nanoproducts to a variety of professional and general readers.
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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.
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Tailored to the needs of drug developers, this one–stop reference for medicinal chemists covers all the latest developments in the field of predictive toxicology and its applications in safety assessment. With a keen emphasis on novel approaches, the topics have been tackled by selected expert scientists, who are familiar with the theoretical scientific background as well as with the practical application of current methods. Emerging technologies in toxicity assessment are introduced and evaluated in terms of their predictive power, with separate sections on computer predictions and simulation methods, novel in vitro systems including those employing stem cells, toxicogenomics and novel biomarkers. In each case, the most promising methods are discussed and compared to classical in vitro and in vivo toxicology assays. Finally, an outlook section discusses such forward–looking topics as immunotoxicology assessment and novel regulatory requirements. With its wealth of methodological knowledge and its critical evaluation of modern approaches, this is a valuable guide for toxicologists working in pharmaceutical development, as well as in safety assessment and the regulation of drugs and chemicals.
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