Medical error as defined in Epidemic of Medical Errors and Hospital-Acquired Infections: Systemic and Social Causes encompasses many categories including, but not limited to, medical error, hospital-acquired infections, medication errors, deaths from misdiagnosis, deaths from infectious diarrhea in nursing homes, surgical and post-operative complications, lethal blood clots in veins, and excessive radiation from CT scans.
When the deaths from these categories are counted they become the leading cause of fatality to Americans, outpacing cancer and heart disease. Add the numbers of fatalities (mortality) to the millions each year who are injured (morbidity) and whose quality of life is forever effected, and an epidemic of harm is defined.
The book describes the many systemic and social causes of medical error and iatrogenic events, all of which are cited in the peer-review science, that have a direct effect on the epidemic of patient injury, but are rarely or never considered. These systemic causes include factory medicine (for-profit medicine), staffing ratios in clinical and non-clinical departments, shift work, healthcare working conditions, lack of accountability, legal issues that conflict with patient safety issues, bullying and hierarchical relationships, training of healthcare workers that never rises to the level of risk, and injury to healthcare workers. The premise of the book is that if the systemic or social causes are not considered or changed, then medical error will continue to be an epidemic and no substantial impact in the numbers will be realized.
An expert with 30 years of experience as a health and safety officer in healthcare and as an activist for community health and safety issues, editor and author William Charney explores the issues surrounding medical errors and examines the science behind possible solutions. He presents an efficient dialogue that produces a more systemic exploration and targeting of the causes of medical error and drives an exacting message: we are dealing with an epidemic of harm, and unless systemic issues are solved, little will change to subdue the epidemic.
Information on the June 2012 Conference on the Epidemic of Medical Errors & Hospital Acquired Infections in the US and Canada: the Systemic Causes can be found on the CRC Press Issuu page.
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About the Author
Nicholas C Harvey MA MB BChir PhD FRCP is Professor of Rheumatology and Clinical Epidemiology at the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, and leads a world class programme of research focused on the lifecourse epidemiology of bone and joint disease. His work is investigating the translation of epidemiological observations linking early life influences with later bone health into potential novel public health strategies (e.g. gestational vitamin D supplementation) aimed at optimising childhood bone mineral accrual and reducing risk of later fracture; elucidation of underlying mechanisms; and investigation of novel risk factors for poor bone health in older age. He has won several awards at national and international meetings, is an investigator on >£50m grant funding and has published over 150 peer-reviewed papers. He is Vice-Chair of the International Osteoporosis Foundation Committee of Scientific Advisors, Musculoskeletal Lead for the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement, and a member of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Professional Practice Committee, National Osteoporosis Society (UK) Scientific Programme Committee, UK Bone Research Society Committee, Arthritis Research UK PRC and UK NIHR Regional RfPB Panel.
Cyrus Cooper OBE DL FMedSci is Professor of Rheumatology and Director of the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton and Professor of Musculoskeletal Science at the Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford.
He leads an internationally competitive programme of research into the epidemiology of musculoskeletal disorders, most notably osteoporosis. His key research contributions have been discovery of the developmental influences which contribute to the risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture in late adulthood, demonstration that maternal vitamin D insufficiency is associated with suboptimal bone mineral accrual in childhood, characterisation of the definition and incidence rates of vertebral fractures and leadership of large pragmatic randomised controlled trials of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in the elderly as immediate preventative strategies against hip fracture.
He is President of the International Osteoporosis Foundation, Chair of the BHF Project Grants Committee, an emeritus NIHR Senior Investigator and Associate Editor of Osteoporosis International. He has previously served as Chairman of the Scientific Advisors Committee, International Osteoporosis Foundation; Chairman, MRC Population Health Sciences Research Network; Chairman of the National Osteoporosis Society of Great Britain; and past-President of the Bone Research Society of Great Britain. He has worked on numerous Department of Health, European Community and World Health Organisation committees and working groups and has published extensively (over 900 research papers; h-index=119) on osteoporosis and rheumatic disorders and has pioneered clinical studies on the developmental origins of peak bone mass. In 2015, he was awarded an OBE for services to medical research.
This is a concise introduction to epidemiology and biostatistics written specifically for medical students and first-time learners of clinical research methods. It presents the core concepts of epidemiology and of biostatistics and illustrates them with extensive examples from the clinical literature. It is the only book on the market written to speak directly to medical students and first-time biomedical researchers by using language and examples that are easy to understand.
This newly updated second edition is extensively rewritten to provide the clearest explanations and examples. There is also a sister-text, a 150-problem workbook of practice problems that can be purchased alongside this textbook. The author continues to provide a text that is attractively fast-paced and concise for use in condensed courses, such as those taught in medical school.
The book is an excellent review for the epidemiology section of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Part I which all medical students must take at the end of the second year.
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