The Autonomous Brain: A Neural Theory of Attention and Learning

 Neurology/Neurosurgery  Comments Off on The Autonomous Brain: A Neural Theory of Attention and Learning
Aug 202019
 

The behaviorist credo that animals are devices for translating sensory input into appropriate responses dies hard. The thesis of this pathbreaking book is that the brain is innately constructed to initiate behaviors likely to promote the survival of the species, and to sensitize sensory systems to stimuli required for those behaviors. Animals attend innately to vital stimuli (reinforcers) and the more advanced animals learn to attend to related stimuli as well. Thus, the centrifugal attentional components of sensory systems are as important for learned behavior as the more conventional paths. It is hypothesized that the basal ganglia are an important source of response plans and attentional signals.

This reversal of traditional learning theory, along with the rapid expansion of knowledge about the brain, especially that acquired by improved techniques for recording neural activity in behaving animals and people, makes it possible to re-examine some long standing psychological problems. One such problem is how the intention to perform an act selects sensory input from relevant objects and ensures that it alone is delivered to the motor system to control the intended response. This is an aspect of what is sometimes known as the binding problem: how the different features of an observed object are integrated into a unified percept. Another problem that has never been satisfactorily addressed is how the brain stores information concerning temporal order, a requirement for the production of most learned responses, including pronouncing and writing words.

A fundamental process, the association between brain activities representing external events, is surprisingly poorly understood at the neural level. Most concepts have multiple associations but the concept is not unduly corrupted by them, and usually only a single appropriate association is aroused at a time. Furthermore, any arbitrary pair of concepts can be instantly associated, apparently requiring an impossibly high degree of neural interconnection. The author suggests a substitute for the reverberating closed neuronal loop as an explanation for the engram (active memory trace or working memory), which may go some way to resolving these difficulties.

Shedding new light on enduring questions, The Autonomous Brain will be welcomed by a broad audience of behavioral and brain scientists.

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The Construction of Mental Representations During Reading

 Psychiatry  Comments Off on The Construction of Mental Representations During Reading
Aug 202019
 

This volume presents in-depth investigations of the processes of meaning-making during reading at both local (discourse) and global (general knowledge) levels. It will be of theoretical and practical interest to cognitive scientists & reading researchers
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Alcohol and Alcoholism: Effects on Brain and Development

 Neurology/Neurosurgery  Comments Off on Alcohol and Alcoholism: Effects on Brain and Development
Aug 202019
 


This is the first volume that focuses on the lifespan neurobehavioral factors likely to determine susceptibility to alcohol abuse and its consequences. The chapters offer careful analysis of the effects of ethanol on the fetus, the infant, the adolescent, and the adult. The authors include behavioral neuroscientists and clinical neuropsychologists. Their topics range from the neurochemical and neuroanatomical consequences of prenatal alcohol to the cognitive consequences of prenatal alcohol on preschool and school-age children. The impact of genetics on sensitivity to alcohol is considered in terms of analytic tests using techniques of behavioral genetics and molecular biology. The consequences of exposure to alcohol during breastfeeding are described in experiments with human infants. The alcoholism that develops in adulthood is analyzed through the experimental study of relapse from alcohol deprivation and assessment of neuropsychological impairments and treatment for alcoholics. Drawing on extensive research that has applied techniques from molecular neurobiology and tests of learning and memory to the clinical assessment and treatment of alcoholics.

The volume answers recent questions raised by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute of Drug Abuse about the role of early experience in susceptibility to later abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Although epidemiological studies can describe the problem, solutions in terms of mechanisms that mediate these effects will be found only with the kinds of experimentally oriented approaches the chapter authors describe.

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Psychobiology of Behaviour

 Behavioral Sciences, Psychiatry  Comments Off on Psychobiology of Behaviour
Aug 202019
 

The book provides a comprehensive reference on the neurobiological understanding of behaviour, how behaviour is regulated by the brain, and how such behaviours in turn influence the brain.
The work offers an introduction to neural systems and genetics/epigenetics, followed by detailed study of a wide range of behaviours – temperament and personality, instincts and drives, memory and cognitive function, sex and sexual differentiation, ethology and evolutionary biology, aging, drug abuse and other problematic behaviors, psychophysiology and ultimately the links to biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology. Research findings on the neural basis of social behaviour are integrated across different levels of analysis, from molecular neurobiology and neural systems/behavioural neuroscience to fMRI imaging data on human social behaviour. The content covers research on both normal and abnormal behaviours, as well as developmental aspects.
The target audience includes psychiatrists, neurologists, nurses, psychologists and all researchers and advanced students in behavioural, social and developmental neuroscience, as well as clinical neuroscientists.

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Leveraging Lean in the Emergency Department: Creating a Cost Effective, Standardized, High Quality, Patient-Focused Operation

 Emergency  Comments Off on Leveraging Lean in the Emergency Department: Creating a Cost Effective, Standardized, High Quality, Patient-Focused Operation
Aug 202019
 

Emergency departments have become the new primary access point into the healthcare system for a significant portion of the population. As a result, emergency departments are notorious for their long wait times, questionable quality of care, and poor reimbursement. By adopting Lean manufacturing concepts, hospitals can turn the emergency department into a valuable service for the hospital and the community it serves. This is a how-to’ book for a Lean implementation, combining Lean tools and concepts as applied to the emergency department.

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New perspectives in magnesium research: Nutrition and health

 Nutrition  Comments Off on New perspectives in magnesium research: Nutrition and health
Aug 202019
 

A definitive review in the field of magnesium research, this book brings together the proceedings of the 11th International Magnesium Symposium in Osaka, Japan from October 22-26, 2006. Written by authorities in the area, the book provides a thorough overview of progress in the area of magnesium research. The author is one of the world’s foremost magnesium researchers and reviewers, and the book provides essential reading for researchers in magnesium.
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Neural plasticity and disorders of the nervous system

 Neurology/Neurosurgery  Comments Off on Neural plasticity and disorders of the nervous system
Aug 192019
 

Neural Plasticity and Disorders of the Nervous System provides comprehensive coverage of the pathophysiology of neurological disorders emphasising those disorders where expression of plasticity is evident. Including the basis for the expression of neural plasticity; how reorganisation of the nervous system can cause hyperactivity in sensory systems producing central neuropathic pain, tinnitus and paresthesia; the role of little-known non-classical pathways in pain and sensory disorders and their subcortical connections; hyper- and hypoactivity of motor systems after injury, and the role of spinal reflexes and internal processing in the spinal cord. Phantom symptoms and disorders of nerves and associated disorders are discussed, along with disorders that can be cured by microvascular decompression operations. A detailed and comprehensive description of the organisation of pain circuits and sensory and motor nervous systems is also included. This 2006 text is aimed at students and graduates of neuroscience and medicine.
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Neuroradiology Cases

 Neurology/Neurosurgery  Comments Off on Neuroradiology Cases
Aug 192019
 

Designed for both in-depth study as well as quick reference, Neuroradiology Cases covers the field of brain imaging through 192 concise and clinically relevant cases. Part of the Cases in Radiology series, this book follows the easy-to-learn case format of question and answer, complete with concise summaries and a generous amount of top-quality images. Following the format of the American Board of Radiology examinations, cases are grouped into three sections: Brain, Spine, and Ear, Nose, and Throat. Within each section, cases are randomly ordered and include challenging examples of common diseases as well as typical examples of less common ones. This collection of cases is ideal for the resident preparing for the boards, the fellow for the CAQ exam, or the radiologist in need of a quick review.
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Paediatric Dentistry Ed 4

 Dentistry, Pediatrics  Comments Off on Paediatric Dentistry Ed 4
Aug 192019
 

Paediatric Dentistry fourth edition combines in-depth theoretical information and practical clinical skills to produce a highly relevant resource for undergraduate dentistry students and indeed any clinician in the field. With a user-friendly design, this new edition continues the extensive use of key points, advice on further reading and directions to important evidence. As a result this texts acts as both an essential study tool and a quick reference guide for the surgery. Paediatric Dentistry fourth edition contains a comprehensive survey of every important aspect in the field, including oral pathology, prevention and treatment of dental caries, and restorative dentistry.

The book now offers over 550 illustrations, including clinical photographs and information-packed diagrams. Explanations of key clinical procedures are supported by step-by-step illustrations encorporating photographs, x-ray scans and line drawings. Updated throughout, a new chapter on safeguarding children has also been included in order to prepare the reader for the role they might play in protecting the health and wellbeing of vulnerable children. This reflects the child-centred approach that is integrated throughout the text.

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New Developments on Computational Methods and Imaging in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering

 Radiology  Comments Off on New Developments on Computational Methods and Imaging in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Aug 192019
 

This book gathers selected, extended and revised contributions to the 15th International Symposium on Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (CMBBE2018), and the 3rd Conference on Imaging and Visualization, which took place on 26-29 March, 2018, in Lisbon, Portugal. The respective chapters highlight cutting-edge methods, e.g. new algorithms, image analysis techniques, and multibody modeling methods; and new findings obtained by applying them in biological and/or medical contexts. Original numerical studies, Monte Carlo simulations, FEM analyses and reaction-diffusion models are described in detail, together with intriguing new applications.
The book offers a timely source of information for biologists, engineers, applied mathematicians and clinical researchers working on multidisciplinary projects, and is also intended to foster closer collaboration between these groups.

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