Jan 132017
 

Arenaviruses II: The Molecular Pathogenesis of Arenavirus Infections (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)


Viruses are studied either because they cause significant human, animal or plant disease or because they are useful materials for probing basic phenomena in biology, chemistry, genetics and/or molecular biology. Arenaviruses are unusually interesting in that they occupy both categories. Arenaviruses cause several human diseases known primarily as the hemorrhagic fevers occurring in South and Latin America (Bolivia: Machupo, Argentine, Junin virus, and Brazil: Sabia virus) and in Africa (Lassa fever virus). Because such viruses produce profound disabilities and often kill the persons they infect, they are a source of health concern and economic hardship in the countries where they are prevalent. Further, they provide new problems for healthcare persons owing to the narrowing of the world as visitors from many countries travel increasingly to and from endemic areas and may incubate the infectious agent taking it from an endemic area into an area where the virus is not expected. Such cases are now being re­ corded with increasing frequency. In addition to these hemor­ rhagic fever viruses, the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can infect humans worldwide, although the illness is most often less disabling and severe than those elicited by the other arenaviruses. Yet, LCMV is of greater concern to non­ arenavirologists and experimentalists using tissue culture or ani­ mals, etc. , because normal-appearing cultured cells or tissues from animals used for research may be persistently infected with LCMV without manifesting clinical disease or cytopathology and may transmit that infection to laboratory workers.
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Jan 132017
 

Attempts to Understand Metastasis Formation I: Metastasis-Related Molecules (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)


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In metastasis, tumor cells disseminate from the primary lesion and home to secondary organs where they may remain dormant for a long time. Metastasis formation is still the most feared manifestation for tumor patients and clinicians. Although improvements have been made concerning earlier detection and specific therapy, most of the cancer patients still die of distant metastases. The pu-rpose of these three volumes is to review the recent progress in molecular metas­ tasis research and to attempt to further understand the biol­ ogy of this multifocal process. With respect to present day molecular biology, the pioneers of metastasis research established the basic concepts of metasta­ sis formation in the 1970s and 1980s, namely, clonal selection of metastatic cells, heterogeneity of metastatic subpopulations, organ specificity of metastasis and the importance of angio­ genesis (Fidler, Kripke, Nicolson, Folkman and others). In the 1980s and 1990s, several of the molecules involved were identified and their network interactions elucidated. These three volumes of Current Topics in Microbiology and Immuno­ logy compile the most recent developments on these meta­ stasis-related molecules; their interactions, regulation, and ways to interfere with their action. It became evident that metastasis-related molecules are confined to distinct cellular compartments, such as the extracellular space, the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic signalling network, and the nuclear regulatory system. For the complex metastatic cascade, proteolysis and alterations in adhesive functions are the most obvious and thus one of the most thoroughly investigated processes.
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Jan 132017
 

Attempts to Understand Metastasis Formation II: Regulatory Factors (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)


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Within the last decade the molecular biology of tumor models has revealed the identification of several metastasis- related molecules. These volumes attempt to review the most recent approaches of their mechanisms, regulation and way to treat their malignant alterations. The first volume covers the presentation of proteases and inhibitors and their role in invasion of tumor cells, also cell adhesion molecules and their interaction with the extracellular matrix. In the second volume the regulation of tumor progression and angiogenesis by cytokines, growth factors and motility factors is outlined. The third volume deals with detection of micrometastases and therapeutic approaches, such as immunotherapy, gene therapy, chemotherapy and surgical strategies to combat metastatic spread.
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Jan 132017
 

Bacteria and Complement (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)


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Deficiencies in any of the defense mechanisms of the host can lead to severe microbial infections; these are of clinical relevance. Broad up-to-date knowledge in this field allows identification of many unspecific as well as highly specific defense reactions involved in the struggle against infectious diseases. On the other hand, protective structures on the microbial cell surfaces have been adapted and improve the counterpart’s chances of survival. In particular, it has been considered that the great diversity of the bacterial envelopes not only determines the anatomical location of the tissue injury but also induces activation of distinct parts of the complex defense system. The specific defense mechanism, whose most prominent constituent is provided by the antibo
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Jan 102017
 

Practical Medical Microbiology for Clinicians


By (author): Frank E. Berkowitz, Robert C. Jerris

Infectious diseases constitute a major portion of illnesses worldwide, and microbiology is a main pillar of clinical infectious disease practice. Knowledge of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites is integral to practice in clinical infectious disease.

Practical Medical Microbiology is an invaluable reference for medical microbiology instructors. Drs. Berkowitz and Jerris are experienced teachers in the fields of  infectious diseases and microbiology respectively, and provide expert insight into microorganisms that affect patients, how organisms are related to each other, and how they are isolated and identified in the microbiology laboratory. The text also is designed to provide clinicians the knowledge they need to facilitate communication with the microbiologist in their laboratory.

The text takes a systematic approach to medical microbiology, describing taxonomy of human pathogens and consideration of organisms within specific taxonomic groups. The text tackles main clinical infections caused by different organisms, and supplements these descriptions with clinical case studies, in order to demonstrate the effects of various organisms.

Practical Medical Microbiology is an invaluable resource for students, teachers, and researchers studying clinical microbiology, medical microbiology, infectious diseases, and virology.

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Jan 082017
 

Lippincott’s Illustrated Q&A Review of Microbiology and Immunology


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By (author): Bonnie A. Buxton PhD, Lauritz A. Jensen DA, Randal K. Gregg PhD

Lippincott’s Illustrated Q&A Review of Microbiology and Immunology offers up-to-date, clinically relevant board-style questions-perfect for course review and board prep! Approximately 500 multiple-choice questions with detailed answer explanations cover frequently tested topics in bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, infectious disease, basic immunology, and clinical immunology. The book is heavily illustrated with photos of clinical manifestations or of gram-stained organisms, parasite eggs, oocysts or other parasitic stages, or pathologic specimens.Online access to the questions and answers provides flexible study options.

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Jan 082017
 

Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook (3 Volume Set)


Continues to serve as the sole major publication providing step-by-step protocols and descriptions that enable clinical microbiologists and laboratory staff personnel to perform all analyses from the receipt of the specimen through processing, testing, interpretation, presentation of the final report, and subsequent consultation.

In response to the ever-changing needs and responsibilities of the clinical microbiology field, Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition has been extensively reviewed and updated to present the most prominent procedures in use today.

The Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook provides step-by-step protocols and descriptions that allow clinical microbiologists and laboratory staff personnel to confidently and accurately perform all analyses, including appropriate quality control recommendations, from the receipt of the specimen through processing, testing, interpretation, presentation of the final report, and subsequent consultation.

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Jan 052017
 

Bacterial Capsules (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)


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Many bacteria, such as certain Neisseria and Haemophilus or Escherichia coli, are able to withstand the bactericidal activity of complement and phagocytes. This bacterial self protection is brought about by encapsulation. Bacterial capsules thus enable the pathogenic bacteria to survive in the host by counter­ action or evasion of the nonspecific host defense in the early pre immune phase of an infection. It is only in the late immune phase of the infection, when specific anticapsular antibodies are formed and enforce the host’s defense system, that this protective action is overcome. Encapsulated bacteria are then killed and eliminated. Interestingly, some capsules can not or only inefficiently be handled by the immune system. The ensuing lack of antibody formation results in a prolonged susceptibility of the host to the pathogenic bacteria exhibiting such capsules. It was found that bacterial capsules consist of acidic poly­ saccharides. From this it followed that the role of the capsules in the interaction of encapsulated bacteria with the host may be due to the chemistry of the capsular polysaccharides. This led to intensive studies of capsular polysaccharides in many laboratories. Our increasing knowledge of the structural features of capsular polysaccharides prompted not only immuno­ chemical studies analyzing the interactions of these poly­ saccharide antigens and characterizing the epitopes, but also investigations into their biosynthesis. These studies were complemented and supported by genetic analyses. Today many interdisciplinary investigations of capsular polysaccharides are in progress.
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Jan 052017
 

Antigen Presentation (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)


Antigen presentation is central to the immune response, andis instrumental in ensuring that the response mounted is that best suited to the eradication of the particular microbe faced. In this volume, experts in the field provide state-of-the-art descriptions of the antigen presentation pathways. How do viruses disrupt these critical pathways, and to what effect? Do all tissues present antigen in the same way? If not, why? What are the consequences of dysfunctional antigen presentation, seen in certain genetic disorders? This book considers not only the molecular details, but also their relevance to the whole organism.
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Jan 052017
 

ADP-Ribosylating Toxins (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)


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ADP-ribosylating toxins have been the focus of intensive research for more than 30 years. Researchers from diverse fields of science have taken an interest in these bacterial toxins; they are studied, for example, by microbiologists, biochemists, cell biologists, and pharmacologists. There are two principal reasons for the broad and still growing interest in ADP­ ribosylating toxins. First, insights into the structure and functions of the toxins might be the key to prevention and treatment of diseases caused by the toxin-producing infectious micro­ organisms. Second, the ADP-ribosylating toxins provide potent and often unique pharmacological tools for the study of the physiological functions of their target proteins. The latter is especially the case with cholera and pertussis toxins, which both modify the IX-subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins involved in signal transduction pathways. These toxins have proved invaluable in extending our basic understanding of the regulation of hormone-controlled signal transduction. This volume provides a review and an update of recent studies on the basic properties of bacterial ADP-ribosylating tbxins and/or exoenzymes. Our current knowledge of the cel­ lular entry mechanisms of ADP-ribosylating toxins is reviewed by MADSHUS and STENMARK. WILSON and COLLIER then deal with recent insights into the enzyme mechanism and active site structure of diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A, which modify elongation factor 2. Toxins which ADP-ribosylate heterotrimeric G-proteins involved in trans­ membrane signal transduction are the subject of the next two chapters.
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