Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder
Oct 202018
 

This book describes a sleep disorder belonging to the category of parasomnias (i.e. the sleep behavioral and experiential disorders) characterized by abnormal vocal and motor behaviors in the context of vivid dreams and loss of the customary muscle atonia during the stage of sleep called REM sleep. REM-atonia – one of the defining features of REM sleep, along with rapid-eye-movements and a highly activated brain state – serves a protective function, preventing the dreamer from acting-out dreams and becoming injured.
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was first described in 1986 by Schenck and colleagues; since then the understanding of the condition has increased exponentially, also pointing out its strong association with the development of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by alpha synuclein deposition, such as Parkinson’s disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, and Multiple System Atrophy. Furthermore, RBD is now considered one of the earliest markers of ongoing alpha synuclein neurodegeneration, and provides a window of opportunity for testing disease modifying therapies that may slow down or halt the progression of these disorders for which there is currently no cure.

Additionally, RBD is today known to be present in more than 50% of patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy, and can also be triggered by the most commonly prescribed antidepressant medications (e.g. SSRIs, venlafaxine). RBD has been documented as occurring, with variable frequency, with virtually every category of neurologic disease and has also helped expand the field of dream research.

The volume Editors have pioneered scientific and clinical advances in the field and, partnering with leading sleep clinicians and researchers on this book, have produced an invaluable guide to specialists in sleep medicine, neurology, psychiatry and psychology. There are also strong contributions in this book by leading basic science researchers, and so this book should also appeal to neuroscientists. As stated in the book, “RBD is situated at a strategic and busy crossroads of sleep medicine and the neurosciences. RBD offers great breadth and depth of research opportunities, including extensive inter-disciplinary and multinational research opportunities…RBD is an ‘experiment of Nature’ in which knowledge from the study of motor-behavioral dyscontrol during REM sleep, with dream-enactment, has cast a broad and powerful light on a multitude of Central Nervous System disturbances, their evolution, and their comorbidities.”

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Social Behavior and Skills in Children

 Behavioral Sciences, Pediatrics  Comments Off on Social Behavior and Skills in Children
Sep 142018
 

That children are capable of pathology―not only such conditions as ADHD and learning disabilities, but also such “adult” disorders as anxiety and depression―stands as a defining moment in psychology’s recent history. Within this recognition is the understanding that the social skills deficits that accompany these disorders must be targeted for assessment and treatment to ensure optimal functioning in school, with peers, and in later transitions to puberty and adulthood.

Social Behavior and Skills in Children cuts across disciplinary lines to clarify the scope of assessment options and interventions for a wide range of disorders. A panel of leading scholars reviews current research, discusses social deficits unique to specific disorders, and identifies evidence-based best practices in one authoritative, approachable reference.

This volume:

– Discusses theoretical models of social skills as they relate to assessment and treatment.

– Analyzes the etiology of social behavior problems in children and the relation between these problems and psychopathology.

– Reviews 48 norm-referenced measures of social skills in children.

– Examines the range of evidence-based social skills interventions.

– Addresses challenging behaviors, such as aggression and self-injury.

– Focuses on specific conditions, including developmental disabilities, conduct disorders, ADHD, chronic medical illness, depression, anxiety, and severe psychopathology.

Social Behavior and Skills in Children is an essential reference for university libraries as well as a must-have volume for researchers, graduate students, and clinicians in child, and school psychology, special education, and other related fields.

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Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Systemic Practice

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Systemic Practice
Sep 112018
 

This concise book is for students and therapists who wish to develop competencies in family therapy and systemic practice with children. Using a fictional clinical case, the book describes the contributions of couple and family psychology (CFP) to the understanding and treatment of emotional and behavioral disorders among children ages 2 to 12. CFP competencies are presented and applied to the case of a nine-year-old girl with school refusal and behavior problems. The book describes how a systemic perspective affects clinical decisions from intake to treatment termination. Specific competencies discussed include: scientific knowledge, assessment, evidence-based practice, intervention, individual and cultural diversity, ethical and legal standards, and reflective practice. Readers will come away from this book with a clear sense of how to conceptualize and treat common childhood emotional and behavioral disorders from a systemic perspective.
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Handbook of Behavioral Health Disability Management

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Handbook of Behavioral Health Disability Management
Aug 172018
 

This authoritative handbook provides an up-to-date, interdisciplinary understanding of behavioral health issues and their management within disability systems. It examines today’s complex mismatches between providers, pinpointing related obstacles to relevant diagnosis, referrals, and care while making a solid case for better coordination and collaboration between primary care physicians and a wide range of disability and mental health specialists. Chapters review current findings on common job-related mental health and psychosocial issues, and guide readers through the tangle of insurance and legal concerns typically associated with disability cases. This elegant framework models more effective case management, leading to enhanced client satisfaction and functioning, and improved individual and system outcomes.

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Observational Measurement of Behavior, Second Edition

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Observational Measurement of Behavior, Second Edition
Jul 202018
 

An essential textbook for anyone preparing to be a researcher, this comprehensive volume introduces graduate students to key principles of observational measurement of behavior. Based on a course the highly respected authors taught at Vanderbilt University and the University of Minnesota, this text delves deeply into a highly effective approach to observational measurement: systematic observation.

Students will master both the theoretical principles of systematic observation and recommended research methods and techniques. They’ll learn from practical examples that illustrate complex concepts, clear explanations of recommended research methods, definitions of key terms, and exercises and assignments that help them practice putting principles into action. Online companion materials include two free licenses for proprietary observational software that students can use to complete the exercises and assignments in this book.

Ideal for use in research methodology courses in diverse fields—including special education, communication sciences, psychology, and social work—this fundamental graduate text will prepare future researchers to skillfully collect, summarize, and communicate their observations of children’s behavior.

STUDENTS WILL:
Fully understand key methods of observational research and measurement
Get comprehensive information on both foundational and advanced topics
Learn from real-world examples based on the authors’ extensive experience
Apply specific recommendations for effective techniques and best practices
SELECTED TOPICS COVERED: validity and reliability * representativeness * measurement theory * behavior sampling and coding * observer training * metrics of observational variables * modifying and designing coding manuals * sequential analysis * generalizability theory

ONLINE COMPANION MATERIALS: To enhance their courses, instructors will get a full package of online materials, including two licenses for observational software, video clips students can use to practice coding behaviors, a suggested schedule for a semester-long course, exercises for students, and assignments with corresponding grading rubrics.

About the Author
Paul J. Yoder, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Special Education, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37203

Dr. Paul Yoder has been studying the transition from prelinguistic to linguistic communication in multiple populations with disabilities for over two decades. He is a co-designer of Milieu Communication Teaching and has contributed to several studies examining the efficacy of this treatment. He teaches methods and measurement at Vanderbilt University.

Primary research activities of Frank J. Symons, Ph.D., are supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), and they focus on improving the assessment and treatment of severe self-injurious behavior among individuals with developmental disabilities and pervasive developmental disorders. Dr. Symons was a research scientist at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a postdoctoral fellow at the John F. Kennedy Center at the Peabody College of Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. He is the co-author of Behavioral Observation: Technology and Applications in Developmental Disabilities (Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., 2000).

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Behavioral Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Behavioral Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs
Apr 162018
 

This volume brings together the latest basic and clinical research examining the effects and underlying mechanisms of psychedelic drugs. Examples of drugs within this group include LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. Despite their structural differences, these compounds produce remarkably similar experiences in humans and share a common mechanism of action. Commonalities among the substances in this family are addressed both at the clinical and phenomenological level and at the basic neurobiological mechanism level. To the extent possible, contributions relate the clinical and preclinical findings to one another across species. The volume addresses both the risks associated with the use of these drugs and the potential medical benefits that might be associated with these and related compounds.
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Understanding Suicide: From Diagnosis to Personalized Treatment

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Understanding Suicide: From Diagnosis to Personalized Treatment
Mar 242018
 

Covers a range of key current issues relating to suicide
Discusses evidence on the role of social factors in the genesis of suicidal behavior
Presents innovative strategies for the prevention of suicide and the treatment of suicidal behavior
Explores the need for a personalized approach to suicide prevention

In this book international experts address a range of key current issues relating to suicide. The opening chapters discuss nosology, definitions, clinical determinants, and conceptual models of the suicide process and consider the evidence regarding potential biomarkers of suicide risk based on neuroscientific research. Adopting a neo-Durkheimian perspective, the role of various social factors in the genesis of suicidal behavior is then explored in depth. Practical user-friendly tools that facilitate risk assessment by clinicians are provided, and detailed consideration is given to efficient and innovative strategies for the prevention of suicide and the treatment of suicidal behavior, such as psychotherapy, psychopharmacological approaches, and effective organization of care, including surveillance and the use of online tools. The final part of the book focuses on the need for and development of a personalized approach within the field of suicide prevention.

 

 

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Anxiety, Depression, and Emotion

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Anxiety, Depression, and Emotion
Mar 222018
 

This unique volume focuses on the relationship between basic research in emotion and emotional dysfunction in depression and anxiety.

 

 

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Five Constraints on Predicting Behavior (MIT Press)

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Five Constraints on Predicting Behavior (MIT Press)
Mar 192018
 

 Scientists were unable to study the relation of brain to mind until the invention of technologies that measured the brain activity accompanying psychological processes. Yet even with these new tools, conclusions are tentative or simply wrong.

In this book, the distinguished psychologist Jerome Kagan describes five conditions that place serious constraints on the ability to predict mental or behavioral outcomes based on brain data: the setting in which evidence is gathered, the expectations of the subject, the source of the evidence that supports the conclusion, the absence of studies that examine patterns of causes with patterns of measures, and the habit of borrowing terms from psychology.

Kagan describes the important of context, and how the experimental setting – including the room, the procedure, and the species, age, and sex of both subject and examiner – can influence the conclusions. He explains how subject expectations affect all brain measures; considers why brain and psychological data often yield different conclusions; argues for relations between patterns of causes and outcomes rather than correlating single variables; and criticizes the borrowing of psychological terms to describe brain evidence. Brain sites cannot be in a state of “fear.”

A deeper understanding of the brain’s contributions to behavior, Kagan argues, requires investigators to acknowledge these five constraints in the design or interpretation of an experiment.

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Behavioral Neuroscience of Orexin/Hypocretin

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Behavioral Neuroscience of Orexin/Hypocretin
Mar 152018
 

This issue of Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience focuses on the neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) and brings together scientists from around the world who will provide a timely discussion of how this peptide regulates behavior. This is a fast-moving field, and with the incorporation of novel technologies, new breakthroughs are likely to continue.
For example, the use of optogenetic approaches has enabled the identification of the role of orexin-containing neurons in arousal states, critical for higher order functioning. From a clinical perspective, genetic polymorphisms in hypocretin/orexin and orexin receptors are implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders. In addition, advanced clinical trials are currently underway for orexin receptor antagonists in the treatment of insomnia and sleep disorders. We aim to capture a broad audience of basic scientists and clinicians.

 

 

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