West Nile Encephalitis Virus Infection: Viral Pathogenesis and the Host Immune Response

 Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Pathology  Comments Off on West Nile Encephalitis Virus Infection: Viral Pathogenesis and the Host Immune Response
Feb 252020

In West Nile Encephalitis Virus Infection, leading scientists and researchers discuss the West Nile virus, a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a primary cause of viral encephalitis. Its appearance in the Western Hemisphere in 1999, and the corresponding increase in global disease burden over the last decade has been accompanied by intensive study, including the entry of many scientists into the field. Breakthroughs have been made in understanding the unique transmission pattern between the vector and the multiple avian and mammalian hosts and targets. While the topics in this book are focused on the West Nile virus, they are broad in scope ranging from understanding vector transmission patterns to the dynamics of structural transitions of proteins on the surface of the virion. The editor and contributors of West Nile Encephalitis Virus Infection offer their expertise in this up-to-date and cutting-edge anthology, which will be of broad use to readers from a variety of backgrounds including clinical infectious disease, epidemiology, virology, immunology, and vector biology.
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A Matter of Life and Death: Inside the Hidden World of the Pathologist

 Pathology  Comments Off on A Matter of Life and Death: Inside the Hidden World of the Pathologist
Feb 252020

True tales of microscopic detective work that catches killers both human and pathogen: “More fascinating than fiction. Forget CSI, this is the real thing” (Val McDermid).

A Matter of Life and Death profiles some of the world’s most eminent and pioneering pathologists. This is a hidden world, yet one we will all inevitably encounter at some time in our lives, for pathology lies at the cornerstone of modern medicine. It is pathologists who are responsible for recognizing new diseases such as AIDS, SARS or bird flu, and for diagnosing which cancer a patient is suffering from. Beyond this, it is pathologists who must explain the cause of death at the autopsy table.

A Matter of Life and Death tells fascinating stories of mysterious illnesses and miraculous scientific breakthroughs. But it is also crammed full of extraordinary characters – from the forensic anthropologist with his own Body Farm in Tennessee to the doctor who had a heart-and-lung transplant and ended up using her own lungs for research.

“If you’re interested in criminal investigation, this is the must-read of the year. Probably of the decade.”—Val McDermid, author of Insidious Intent



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Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology and Clinical Management Edition 3

 Pathology, Physiology  Comments Off on Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology and Clinical Management Edition 3
Feb 172020

Completely revised and updated, and utilizing the most current evidence and practice guidelines for the treatment of osteoporosis, this comprehensive third edition discusses the basic aspects of bone metabolism, the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, current diagnostic techniques and medical treatment strategies. Osteoporosis is a common disorder that is prevalent in over 20 million Americans over the age of 60. One and a half million osteoporotic fractures occur in the United States every year, including 300,000 hip fractures. Mortality rates after hip fracture approach 25%, with another 50% of patients experiencing a major decrease in their prior level of independence and quality of life. Despite the wide prevalence and severe consequences of osteoporosis, it remains a disorder that is severely under-diagnosed and treated. In this context, specialists and primary care physicians alike are having increasing difficulty keeping up with the rapid changes to the field and incorporating these advances to clinical care.
In the years since the last edition of this book was published, the osteoporosis field has changed drastically. In addition to revising and updating existing chapters and removing a few that are no longer as relevant, new chapters discuss an advanced understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder, the introduction of new diagnostic imaging techniques, a more nuanced appreciation of the risks and benefits of osteoporosis therapies, and the introduction of two new classes of osteoporosis medications. Following the format of the second edition, and including helpful key points at the opening of each chapter, this text will present a comprehensive overview of both the basic and clinical concepts relating to each topic, when appropriate. Chapter authors were chosen based on their high level of expertise and leadership in the field. Taken together, this text should thus be of great interest to physicians of multiple specialties, allied health professionals, as well as basic and clinical researchers.



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Endometrial Cytology with Tissue Correlations

 Ob/Gynae, Pathology  Comments Off on Endometrial Cytology with Tissue Correlations
Feb 162020

As compared with cytology’s use in other organ systems, direct cytological examination of the endometrium is not a widely practiced diagnostic procedure. This is an anomaly, because the endometrium is exceedingly available for cytological sampling, cytological sampling is comparably simple to perform, and, from the patient’s perspective, it is a gentle procedure as compared to other methods of specimen attainment. Over the years, as we personally gained more and more experience with specimen acquisition, processing and interpretation, we have come to look upon endometrial cytology as an effective method for ensuring endometrial normalcy and discovering and diagnosing malignant and premalignant states. In comparing endometrial cytology to endometrial biopsy, we have found that, in samples obtained by individuals experienced in specimen collection, cytology outperforms outpatient biopsy with regard to the patient’s tolerance of the procedure, adequacy of sampling among postmenopausal women, and detection of occult neoplasms. By devising a highly effective technical strategy to ensure the simultaneous creation of cell blocks and cytological samples from a single collection (that is detailed in the technical appendix of this work), we have moved endometrial brush collection into an arena of significance equaling—indeed exceeding—other methods of specimen collection and interpretation. Cytology, even in the absence of cell blocks, performs equally as well as biopsy in detecting outspoken hyperplasia or carcinoma. If nothing else, by reliably identifying benign, normal endometrial states, it serves to exclude more than 70% of women from unnecessary follow up testing with a high degree of confidence. Because brush sampling of the endometrium is limited to a depth of 1.5 to 2 mm, the method is not definitive for the detection of endometrial polyps, fibroids, stromal tumors, or tumors of the uterine wall musculature. However, endometrial cytology is useful for detecting benign estrogen-excess states such as disordered proliferation and various degrees of benign hyperplasia, for separating these states from frankly neoplastic states such as EIN and cancer, but not for subclassifying benign hyperplastic states in the absence of cell block preparations. When endometrial brushing with liquid fixation is used in conjunction with other techniques such as immunohistochemistry, concomitant biopsy or, more practically, hysteroscopy or sonohysterography, endometrial benignancy can be assured with a very high level of confidence (> 99%); indeed, manufacturing concomitant cell blocks of endometrial tissue fragments and using immunohistochemistry in selected cases significantly enhances the diagnostic specificity of the technique. In a woman with a patent cervix, endometrial brushing successfully collects material, even from late postmenopausal atrophic endometrium. It allows for the detection of serious diseases such as endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma under conditions where suction biopsy might miss or otherwise obviate the diagnosis. This work focuses on the background, collection technique, and reliability of endometrial cytology; it then overviews diagnostic criteria and diagnostic pitfalls encountered in the day-to-day practice of the art. Since endometrial cytology interpretation relies on intuiting tissue patterns from cytology preparations, a great deal of time is spent on cytohistological correlations and, where effective as part of a diagnostic strategy, on ancillary immunohistochemical staining. The discussion moves from normal states of the endometrium, through otherwise benign changes induced by an altered hormonal milieu or surface irritants, into neoplastic premalignant and malignant endometrial conditions. Finally, fixative and slide preparation techniques, that we deem as expeditiou
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Introduction to the Blood-Brain Barrier: Methodology, Biology and Pathology

 Pathology  Comments Off on Introduction to the Blood-Brain Barrier: Methodology, Biology and Pathology
Feb 122020

Knowledge of the blood-brain barrier forms an essential component in the understanding of a large proportion of medical disciplines. Nevertheless, ignorance in this field still impedes progress in many areas, including cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral AIDS, brain tumors, and the development of effective new neuropharmaceuticals. This introduction for both researchers and clinicians across the medical sciences is intended to aid both those beginning work directly in this area and those wishing simply to be better informed when interpreting information where the blood-brain barrier may be involved. Recent advances in both methodology and biology are detailed in fifty state-of-the-art chapters written by international authorities.
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The Activities of Bacterial Pathogens in Vivo

 Pathology  Comments Off on The Activities of Bacterial Pathogens in Vivo
Feb 092020

Pathogenic bacteria have unique biological properties, which enable them to invade a host and cause sickness. The molecular bases of these biological properties are the determinants of pathogenicity, and the research objectives are to recognize them, identify them chemically and relate their structure to function. Most of our present knowledge comes from studies with cultures in vitro. However, there is a rising interest in bacterial behaviour in the infected host and new methods have been developed for studying it. This book describes those methods and shows how they, and a recent surge in conventional studies, are shedding light on the activities of bacterial pathogens in vivo. It discusses bacterial and host factors that operate in vivo to cause illness, showing how phenomena recognized in vitro relate to behaviour in vivo and, if evidence of relevance is not available now, indicating how it might be obtained.
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Pathophysiology of Obesity-Induced Health Complications

 Pathology, Physiology  Comments Off on Pathophysiology of Obesity-Induced Health Complications
Feb 022020

According to the World Health Organization, the epidemic of global obesity has nearly tripled since 1975. In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight, over 650 million of which were obese. Being overweight and obese has been linked to a number of non-communicable, chronic diseases. Pathophysiology of Obesity-Induced Health Complications is a compilation of review articles dedicated to describe co-morbidities associated with obesity.

The wide range that is covered is of significant interest to basic research scientists, clinicians and graduate students who are engaged in studying obesity-induced health complications. Furthermore, this book highlights the potential of novel approaches for the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related illnesses.

Nineteen articles in this book are organized in four sections that are designed to provide an overview of obesity-induced health complications. The first section serves as an introductory section on the prevalence, causes, consequences, treatments and preventive approaches for obesity. Section two covers the metabolic disturbances and inflammation due to obesity. The third section is focused on neurological and visceral complications as a consequence of obesity. The final section covers strategies for the prevention of obesity-induced complications. The book illustrates that obesity can result in a diverse range of pathophysiological conditions that adversely affect health.

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Clinical Methods and Practicum in Speech-Language Pathology, Sixth Edition

 Pathology  Comments Off on Clinical Methods and Practicum in Speech-Language Pathology, Sixth Edition
Feb 022020

by M.N. Hegde (Author), Katrina Kuyumjian (Author)

The sixth edition of Clinical Methods and Practicum in Speech-Language Pathology remains a vital resource for students in speech-language pathology who are about to begin their clinical practicum.
The book is divided into two major sections: clinical practicum and clinical methods in speech language pathology. These sections provide coverage of the structural and functional aspects of clinical practicum in a variety of settings. The book emphasizes clinical practicum is an exciting learning experience. The students will understand what is expected of them in each setting and what they can expect from their clinical supervisors. The book also gives an overview of treatment methods that apply across disorders.

With this book, students will be better prepared to meet the exciting and yet often challenging task of providing ethical and effective services to children and adults with communication disorders. Clinical supervisors may find the book helpful in understanding their own roles and responsibilities better so that they can create a productive and exciting clinical practicum experience for their student clinicians.

Clinical Methods and Practicum in Speech-Language Pathology offers a single and comprehensive source of information that will help establish clear expectations for both student clinicians and the clinical supervisors.

New to the Sixth Edition

New coauthor, Katrina Kuyumjian
A new chapter with an overview of treatment procedures that apply across disorders of communication
Revised section on clinical methods to include updated information on the current ASHA guidelines on clinical practicum; current legal and professional requirements regarding clinical practicum in educational settings; new and expanded information on assessment, target behaviors, and treatment strategies for all disorders of communication
Updated and expanded references throughout
Key Features

Chapter Outlines open each chapter and provide a summary of the key topics
An end-of-book glossary allows readers to easily find and define important terms or concepts
Bulleted and boxed information for easy access
Access to a PluralPlus Companion Website, with PowerPoint lecture slides for each chapter and related materials, including a sample treatment plan, lesson plan, and diagnostic report

“The book covers writing reports, setting up treatment plans, working through multicultural issues, and much more. The description of specific therapeutic techniques is new and will be helpful to new students who need to target key areas of communication skills. I was impressed with chapter 11, which contains a detailed discussion of the maintenance of target behaviors. Maintenance is often a great challenge, and I am planning on using this information to improve processes in our on-campus university clinic.”

–Lorelei J Peirson, MA (Biola University) from Doody’s Book Reviews




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The Diversity of Gastric Carcinoma: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapy

 Pathology  Comments Off on The Diversity of Gastric Carcinoma: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapy
Jan 282020

• Japan is a leader in screening for and treating gastric cancer – this title first publishes Japan’s newest research in English

• Contributors are internationally recognized specialists with publications on gastrointestinal cancers in many high ranking medical journals from Europe and the USA

• Michio Kaminishi was president of the 3rd International Conference of the ISGC



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Human Pathobiochemistry: From Clinical Studies to Molecular Mechanisms

 Pathology  Comments Off on Human Pathobiochemistry: From Clinical Studies to Molecular Mechanisms
Jan 272020

This textbook uses a case-study approach to present the core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology in the context of human disease to students who will be involved in patient care. The 29 clinical cases have been carefully selected to cover key scientific concepts and some common, and other not so common, diseases. While the principal focus is on topics relating to metabolic disease, further subjects such as connective tissue disorders, neurological disorders, auto-inflammatory disorders, infective diseases, and cancer are also addressed. Each chapter provides a specific patient report that includes the natural history, pertinent clinical laboratory data, physical findings, subsequent diagnosis, and therapy. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion of the normal biochemical processes and reactions pertaining to the case, along with the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. Graphical diagrams are provided in each chapter for ease of comprehension.




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