By Barry Strickland-Hodge, Mary-Claire Kennedy
Prescribing has traditionally been the responsibility of medical doctors but independent prescribing courses are now firmly established in the UK and increasing numbers of healthcare professionals have taken on prescribing responsibilities.
The Prescribing Pharmacist reflects these changes, beginning with an overview of pharmacist prescribing and continuing with an exploration of consultation, patient clinical assessment, team working, and understanding cultural and religious issues and ethics. Internal and external influences on the new prescriber are considered, as well as medicines optimisation. The authors also look at prescribing for specific patient groups, such as the elderly, the very young, pregnant women and breast-feeding women, and finally move on to specific medicines that require special care when prescribing. Each chapter of the book refers and links to the Royal Pharmaceutical Society framework written in 2016, A Competency Framework for All Prescribers, which is reproduced, with permission.
Written by a team of pharmacy experts, this book is intended for any pharmacist who is thinking of becoming an independent prescriber, those on pharmacy courses and those who are already qualified as independent or supplementary pharmacist prescribers, who may use it as a reminder of important points covered on their course.
List of abbreviations
An introduction to pharmacist prescribing
The consultation, diagnostic process, diagnosis and influences on prescribing
Patient clinical assessment
Patient partnership and prescribing
Prescribing for specific groups of patients
Medicines requiring particular care when prescribing
Appendix : A Competency Framework for All Prescribers
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This book is divided into eight units containing 33 chapters and over 400 practice problems.
Unit 1: Essential Skills
As with any subject, you must master some basic material before you can tackle the main subject. The following topics are cover in Unit 1.
The Metric System
Dimensional Analysis and Ratio Proportion
Unit 2: Auxiliary Subjects
Unit 2 covers a few subjects which you may or may not need, depending on your school and/or practice.
Unit 3: Unit Conversions
Converting between the various units of measurements used in pharmacy is an essential skill and mastering this unit will set you up for success in the more complex calculations.
Unit Conversions-The Basics
Unit Conversions Within the Metric System
Unit Conversions Within the Household System
Unit Conversions Between Metric, Household and Apothecary
Unit Conversions Involving Hours and Minutes
Unit 4: Dosage Calculations
This unit starts by covering the terminology then moves on to the various ways to set up and solve the problems. Three levels of problems follow, starting with easy, one-step problems, and moving on to more complex problems.
Dosage Calculations-The Basics
Dosage Calculations Levels 1, 2, and 3
Body Surface Area Dosing Calculations
Unit 5: IV Flow Rate Calculations
As with the dosage calculation unit, this unit starts off with the basics then moves on to calculations, starting with easy calculations and progressing to more complex calculations.
IV Flow Rate Calculations-The Basics
IV Flow Rate Calculations Level 1 and 3
IV Flow Rate Adjustments
Unit 6: Percent and Ratio Strength Calculations
As a pharmacy technician, you will encounter drugs expressed in a percent strength every day and it is important that you master this unit.
Unit 7: Concentrations/Dilutions/Reconstitution Calculations
No pharmacy calculation course would be complete without a section on concentrations and dilutions. The knowledge gained in the previous unit will come in handy here.
Concentrations and Dilutions
Powder Volume Calculations
Unit 8: Miscellaneous Subjects
Be sure to take the self-assessment exam and work on any problem areas.
Temperature Conversion Calculations
Pharmacy Calculation Puzzles
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The British National Formulary (BNF) is the first choice for concise medicines information. Trusted by healthcare professionals across the world to support confident decision-making at the point of care. The new edition (BNF 80) provides up-to-date guidance on prescribing, dispensing, and administering medicines, plus legal and professional guidelines.
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Exercise and Sport Pharmacology is an essential book for teaching upper-level undergraduates or entry-level graduate students about how drugs can affect exercise and how exercise can affect the action of drugs. It leads students through the related pathology, exercise physiology, and drug action of many of today’s chronically used medications, and discusses how drugs can affect exercise performance.
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In response to the US FDA’s Critical Path Initiative, innovative adaptive designs are being used more and more in clinical trials due to their flexibility and efficiency, especially during early phase development. Handbook of Adaptive Designs in Pharmaceutical and Clinical Development provides a comprehensive and unified presentation of the principles and latest statistical methodologies used when modifying trial procedures based on accrued data of ongoing clinical trials. The book also gives a well-balanced summary of current regulatory perspectives.
The first several chapters focus on the fundamental theory behind adaptive trial design, the application of the Bayesian approach to adaptive designs, and the impact of potential population shift due to protocol amendments. The book then presents a variety of statistical methods for group sequential design, classical design, dose-finding trials, Phase I/II and Phase II/III seamless adaptive designs, multiple stage seamless adaptive trial design, adaptive randomization trials, hypotheses-adaptive design, and treatment-adaptive design. It also covers predictive biomarker diagnostics for new drug development, clinical strategies for endpoint selection in translational research, the role of independent data monitoring committees in adaptive clinical trials, the enrichment process in targeted clinical trials for personalized medicine, applications of adaptive designs that use genomic or genetic information, adaptive trial simulation, and the efficiency of adaptive design. The final chapters discuss case studies as well as standard operating procedures for good adaptive practices.
With contributions from leading clinical researchers in the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and regulatory agencies, this handbook offers an up-to-date, complete treatment of the principles and methods of adaptive design and analysis. Along with reviewing recent developments, it examines issues commonly encountered when applying adaptive design methods in clinical trials.
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