Coronary Bypass Surgery in the Elderly: Ethical, Economical and Quality of Life Aspects

 Surgery  Comments Off on Coronary Bypass Surgery in the Elderly: Ethical, Economical and Quality of Life Aspects
Jan 182019
 

Coronary artery bypass surgery in the elderly: Too often or too seldom? It is a testimony to scientific advances that raising a simple inquiry today, such as whether coronary artery bypass surgery is done too often or too seldom in elderlypatients, requiresanexplorationofwhatviewsonemightholdonseveral medical as well as non-medical issues. Unlike earlier years when doctors were clinically free to decide what should be done with a patient, health has become an expensive human right, decisions about which also involve the patient, the epidemiologist, the health policy administrator, politicians, the exchequer, and the philosopher. In its broadest definition health has come to mean the core of well-being and, therefore, the goal ofany socio-economic system. Until only a decade ago, medical opinion regarding how often coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) was indicated or useful was unclear. Becauseof multi-organ senescence, the elderly were expected to have a higher rate operative morbidity and mortality and, having crossed an advanced life span, might not live very long after the operation. Decision making on medical grounds first depends on knowing if a patient can survive an operation compared to how long they would survive without it, i. e.
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The Varieties of Orthographic Knowledge: II: Relationships to Phonology, Reading, and Writing

 Uncategorized  Comments Off on The Varieties of Orthographic Knowledge: II: Relationships to Phonology, Reading, and Writing
Jan 182019
 

The role of orthography in reading and writing is not a new topic of inquiry. For example, in 1970 Venezky made a seminal contribution with The Structure of English Orthography in which he showed how both sequential redundancy (probable and permissible letter sequences) and rules of letter-sound correspondence contribute to orthographic structure. In 1972 Kavanagh and Mattingly edited Language by Eye and by Ear which contained important linguistic studies of the orthographic system. In 1980 Ehri introduced the concept of orthographic images, that is, the representation of written words in memory, and proposed that the image is created by an amalgamation of the word’s orthographic and phonological In 1981 Taylor described the evolution of properties. orthographies in writing systems-from the earliest logographies for pictorial representation of ideas to syllabaries for phonetic representation of sounds to alphabets for phonemic representation of sounds. In 1985 Frith proposed a stage model for the role of orthographic knowledge in development of word recognition: Initially in the logographic stage a few words can be recognized on the basis of partial spelling information; in the alphabetic stage words are recognized on the basis of grapheme-phoneme correspondence; in the orthographic stage spelling units are recognized automatically without phonological mediation. In 1990 Adams applied connectionism to an analysis of the orthographic processing of skilled readers: letter patterns emerge from the association units linking individual letters.
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Advances in Imaging Techniques in Ischemic Heart Disease

 Cardiovascular, Radiology  Comments Off on Advances in Imaging Techniques in Ischemic Heart Disease
Jan 182019
 

In recent years there have been tremendous advances in cardiac imaging techniques covering the complete spectrum from echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, magnetic resonance imaging to contrast angiography. With respect to these noninvasive and invasive cardiac imaging modalities, marked technological developments have allowed the cardiologist to visualize the myocardium in a far more refined manner than conventional imaging was capable of. Echocardiography has extended its domain with intravascular ultrasound, cardiovascular nuclear imaging has added positron emission tomography to its line of research, magnetic resonance imaging has been broadened with magnetic resonance angiography and spectroscopy, and finally contrast angiograp­ hy has widened its scope with excellent quantitation programs. For all these imaging modalities it is true that the application of dedicated quantitative analytic software packages enables the evaluation of the imaging studies in a more accurate, reliable, and reproducible manner. It goes without saying that these extensions and achievements have resulted in improved diagnostics and subsequently in improved patient care. Particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, major progress has been made to detect coronary artery disease in an early phase of the disease process, to follow the atherosclerotic changes in the coronary arteries, to establish the functional and metabolic consequences of the luminal obstructions, and to accurately assess the results of interventional therapy.
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Cancer Pain Relief: A Practical Manual

 Oncology  Comments Off on Cancer Pain Relief: A Practical Manual
Jan 182019
 

Pain in oncology, and especially in patients with advanced disease, is an essential issue which cannot be overlooked. Today, pain is worldwide recognised as a very complex symptom which includes different aspects such as somatic, spiritual, social and psychological pain. Practical and scientific knowledge of pain in cancer should be part of the pre and post training of general practioners and oncologists. This manual reflects the opinion of different authors, contributors to pain clinic. These guidelines cover all different aspects of cancer pain. It responds to a need for information, education and training in the field of diagnosis and treatment of cancer pain. The reader will find useful information and suggestions as how to diagnose and treat pain from a pharmacological, surgical and psychosocial point of vIew. Pain therapy is a very important part of quality of life; due to its relevance, we think that this manual will be a useful tool for all health professionals, and we are grateful to Drs. K. Foley and F. De Conno for their generous contribution in making this effort successful. Alberto Costa Director European School of Oncology Vlll Acknowledgements The European School of Oncology wishes to acknowledge Janssen Pharmaceutica for an educational grant for the sponsorship of this manual. Pain – definitions, classification and pain. Patients who are aware that their causes pain is temporary have a more positive attitude.
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Reducing Breast Cancer Risk in Women

 Oncology  Comments Off on Reducing Breast Cancer Risk in Women
Jan 182019
 

Breast cancer is not only a burning public issue, but very soon we shall see genetic testing for a woman’s predisposition to breast cancer. Many women will be demanding to know their degree of risk and will need counselling to cope with that information. This book is particularly aimed at primary health care professionals, including physicians, medical assistants, nurses and counsellors, who daily deal with questions from women concerned about their risk of developing breast cancer. To answer such questions, this book has combined a guide to identifying women at higher risk to breast cancer, with a balanced review of approaches which aim to reduce that risk. The book provides practical general measures which may reduce risk for women at average risk. For women at clearly increased risk various protective options with different levels of efficacy and acceptability are discussed. Central to the book is the patient-centered view. We need to face reality that it still will take many years before the current clinical trials of preventive measures provide meaningful results. Meanwhile, women who seek to diminish their risk of breast cancer need all the available information. They must be given full responsibility to make an informed decision on their own health care. Reducing Breast Cancer Risk in Women is a practical handbook, technicalities have been deliberately kept to a minimum, making it concise and easy to read.
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Ethics, Medical Research, and Medicine: Commercialism versus Environmentalism and Social Justice

 Miscellaneous  Comments Off on Ethics, Medical Research, and Medicine: Commercialism versus Environmentalism and Social Justice
Jan 182019
 

Andrew Thompson, Norman J. Temple We humans are an extraordinary species. One of our finest achievements is the development of morality, of a sense of right and wrong. We articulate and then impose this sensitivity upon ourselves in the form of ethical guidelines, rules, regulations, and laws. We have, regrettably, also developed marvelously clever ways of justifying our behavior whenever it runs afoul of these prescriptions. We have, for example, developed the concept of objectivity to guide scientific pursuits and subsequently established rights which undermine the possibility of ever coming close to attaining the goal of being objective — rights which entitle participating scientists to gain personal, tangible profits from scientific discoveries. Formerly, we envisaged gods who kept us in place, who reminded us that we were not all-powerful or especially wise. Now we tend to worship our achievements, especially our technological ones, and ourselves. Mary Midgley’ aptly names this phenomenon, “humanolatry.” We have lost our respect for nature in our enthusiasm for changing it to that which suits our shortsighted ends. We must, as she says, “unlearn” this way of thinking.
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Error Prevention and Well-Being at Work in Western Europe and Russia: Psychological Traditions and New Trends

 Miscellaneous  Comments Off on Error Prevention and Well-Being at Work in Western Europe and Russia: Psychological Traditions and New Trends
Jan 182019
 

A variety of psychological traditions and methodological approaches formed a body of human error research in different parts of Europe. This book overviews some of the traditions that have grown in West European countries and Russia, with a strong emphasis on contextual approaches. For the very first time, West European readers will have access to a Russian literature in this area. Western and Eastern psychologists are linked by common psychological roots but disciplines evolved in completely different conditions regarding the material possibilities to collect data, diffuse ideas, and finance research, not to mention the respective political, legal, and socioeconomic frameworks. Authors outline and illustrate the convergence that emerged between the two traditions. This book is a unique reference text for graduate students and university libraries. Its rich content, and its empirical approaches will also be of interest to those who are undertaking research and practising in the fields of human error, safety, reliability, human factors, industrial hygiene, safety and health at work, and the legal profession.
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Promoting Self-Change from Problem Substance Use: Practical Implications for Policy, Prevention and Treatment

 Miscellaneous  Comments Off on Promoting Self-Change from Problem Substance Use: Practical Implications for Policy, Prevention and Treatment
Jan 182019
 

For many years, what has been known about recovery from addictive behaviors has come solely from treatment studies. Only recently has the study of recoveries in the absence of formal treatment or self-help groups provided an alternative source of information. This book on the process of self-change from addictive behaviors is the first of its kind, as it presents more than research findings. Rather, it presents the process of self-change from several different perspectives – environmental, cross-cultural, prevention and interventions at both societal and individual level. It provides strategies for how health care practitioners and government policy makers alike can aid and foster self-change. Directions for future research priorities are also presented.
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Scientific and Technical Means of Distinguishing Between Natural and Other Outbreaks of Disease

 Miscellaneous  Comments Off on Scientific and Technical Means of Distinguishing Between Natural and Other Outbreaks of Disease
Jan 182019
 

There is increasing concern over the possible use of biological weapons. If they are used, an attack will manifest as a disease outbreak among humans, animals or plants. It is thus important to be able to distinguish between natural disease outbreaks and the result of such an attack. The bok discusses the scientific and technical means available to investigate this question and then goes on to consider the agents of concern. The book concludes with a look forward to future developments.
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Contrast Agents in Liver Imaging

 Radiology  Comments Off on Contrast Agents in Liver Imaging
Jan 172019
 

Recent advances in surgical procedures for the management of focal liver diseases have greatly increased the demand for diagnostic accuracy. So far these demands have been only partially met by further technical developments such as colour coded duplex sonography, spiral CT and marked improvements in magnetic resonance imaging. It is becoming increasingly clear that liver specific contrast media are essential for utilizing these technical developments to their fullest advantage in patient care. Against this background, a workshop was held to explore the current methods of diagnostic imaging of the liver and to try and establish a profile for the future liver specific contrast media. The pathologist’s introductory and general overview is followed by chapters on the individual imaging procedures such as ultrasound, CT and MRI, so that each of the three is given the attention it deserves. The book will be of interest to radiologists from the various disciplines, and also those who plan and perform therapies, particularly surgeons and internists.
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