Spinal Cord Monitoring: Basic Principles, Regeneration, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Aspects

 Pathology, Physiology  Comments Off on Spinal Cord Monitoring: Basic Principles, Regeneration, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Aspects
Jan 232019
 

During the last decades, research on spinal cord has attracted a great deal of attention because of problems such as sensory-motor and autonomic dysfunctions associated with traumatic and other injuries. Recording of spinal cord evoked potentials is one of the most promising approaches to understand the spinal cord function. However, the details of the evoked potentials and their significance in various pathological conditions are not yet fully characterized. This book summarizes new findings in the field of electrophysiology and relates this knowledge to pathology and regeneration research. It is the first one which deals in great detail with various ways to monitor spinal cord function in experimental and clinical situations. It provides an up-to-date knowledge regarding spinal cord bioelectrical activity and its modification with pharmacological agents and covers new aspects of regeneration studies, particularly the role of myelin associated inhibitory molecules. A section is devoted to clinical studies dealing with electrical activity, pathology, and current therapeutic measures. This volume will be useful both to basic and clinical neuroscientists engaged in the field of neurology, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neurosurgery, neuropathology, and related disciplines in order to understand basic functions of the spinal cord and to stimulate further research in this rapidly advancing field.
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Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction: Epidemiology and Scoring Systems Pathophysiology and Therapy

 Epidemiology, Pathology, Physiology  Comments Off on Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction: Epidemiology and Scoring Systems Pathophysiology and Therapy
Jan 212019
 

Sepsis is a syndrome or sometimes it is a clinical condition evoked by uncontrolled endotoxin-reactions. These pathophysiological alterations can disturb the organism’s homeostasis leading ultimately to a condition of severe organ dysfunction which in itself means a bad prognosis for patient survival. In the last decades researchers and clinicians have been involved in process directed to a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of sepsis and MODS. The best goal will be the achievement of preventive measures and optimization of management in patients suffering severe infections and critical conditions. This objective represents a true challenge at the dawn of the XXI century.
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Somatic and Autonomic Regulation in Sleep: Physiological and Clinical Aspects

 Physiology  Comments Off on Somatic and Autonomic Regulation in Sleep: Physiological and Clinical Aspects
Jan 212019
 

This volume contains the contributions to a course entitled “Sleep and its Pathology”, which was organized by the Advanced School of the Italian Neuro­ science Society at the “Alessandro Volta” Center of Scientific Culture (Villa Olmo, Como, Italy, May 9-10,1996). The course was aimed at informing the medical audience about recent deve­ lopments in the field with particular regard to the work of the sleep laboratories of the University of Bologna. The first part of this book presents experimental results dealing with the bio­ chemical specificity of hypothalamic sleep mechanisms, cerebral metabolism during sleep and the sleep-dependent systemic cardiovascular adjustments in relation to blood perfusion and thermal homeostasis of the brain. The second part covers pathophysiological aspects of human sleep, namely the circadian rhythm of body core temperature in neurodegenerative diseases, the descriptive epidemiology of excessive daytime sleepiness, the disorders of breathing and motor control in sleep and the syndrome of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The Editors hope that the book may be useful not only to specifically interested rea­ ders, but also to general practitioners. The Editors wish to express special thanks to Professor Eugenio E. Muller for his suggestion to collect the lectures in book-form. The Editors thank the authors for their contributions to the course and to this publication and express their appreciation to Springer-Verlag for helping make this monography possible.

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Cardiac Arrhythmias, Pacing & Electrophysiology: The Expert View

 Cardiovascular, Physiology  Comments Off on Cardiac Arrhythmias, Pacing & Electrophysiology: The Expert View
Jan 152019
 

Europace ’97 was held in Athens, Greece, on 8-11 June Leads were, as usual, an important topic, with the earl­ 1997 in the city of classical civilisation and learning. iest mention of the then-new polyurethane leads. Future Though now held in modem surroundings and meeting conferences elaborated on these basic topics while pro­ facilities, the influence of the ancient city-state was un­ gressively adding sensors and sensor function, dual­ mistakable, with the architecture and learning of antiquity chamber pacing, and recognising the development of looming over the city, by its influence over the intellectual clinical cardiac electrophysiology. activities of the symposium. The ancient magnificence of Clinical cardiac electrophysiology and compre­ the site was matched by the novelty of modem art and hension of arrhythmias has been largely a development science, Europace is a European symposium, begun in of the twentieth century. With the description and 1979, and has occurred every second year since. Con­ recording of the bundle of His depolarisation, by direct sistent with its importance and continental reach the actual access and by catheter, modem clinical investigation of symposium has moved to different cities throughout arrhythmias and cardiac electrophysiology began. The Western Europe. The first symposium was held in London disciplines of cardiac stimulation and of investigation of and subsequent symposia have been held in Torremolinos, arrhythmias, impulse formation and A V conduction Ostend, Florence, Istanbul and other cities. Because of the were essentially separate for many years.
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Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Physiology versus Pathology

 Pathology, Physiology  Comments Off on Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Physiology versus Pathology
Jan 142019
 

The importance of left ventricular hypertrophy in cardiovascular disease has gained wide recognition. Left ventricular hypertrophy is a highly important risk factor associated with major cardiovascular events, including symptomatic heart failure, particularly in patients with systemic hypertension. Over the past years much has been learned about the genetics, molecular background, prevalence, incidence and prognosis of left ventricular hypertrophy. A variety of noninvasive methods has emerged for detecting left ventricular hypertrophy and the assessment of reversal of hypertrophy. Yet, a lot of controversy remains about the connotations and clinical implications of left ventricular hypertrophy. For instance, in the athlete’s heart left ventricular hypertrophy may constitute a physiological adaptation to pressure overload, which normalizes following discontinuation of strenuous physical activity. On the other hand, in particular in patients with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy denotes a serious prognosis in the course of hypertension. In these patients left ventricular hypertrophy should be regarded as a grave prognostic sign rather than an innocent compensatory phenomenon. The distinction between physiologic and pathophysiologic left ventricular hypertrophy has been the basis for this book.
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Pathophysiology of Heart Failure

 Cardiovascular, Pathology, Physiology  Comments Off on Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
Jan 132019
 

Pathophysiology of Heart Failure brings together leading basic scientists and clinicians, presenting new approaches to this complex problem, involving cardiomyopathic processes and ischemia perfusion injury. The result is a synthesis of state-of-the-art information on molecular biology, cellular physiology and structure-function relationships in the cardiovascular system. The role which excess intracellular calcium plays in the genesis of cardiac dysfunction is described as a fundamental mechanism underlying heart failure; one which may lead to improved prevention and treatment. Audience: Clinical and experimental cardiologists will find the book a helpful source of ideas and inspiration.
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Cell Death in Reproductive Physiology

 Physiology, Reproductive Health  Comments Off on Cell Death in Reproductive Physiology
Jan 122019
 

The regulation of cell death in various reproductive tissues, as in other ma­ jor organ systems of the body, has become a focal point of research activity in many laboratories over the past few years. As such, the need for a “for­ mal” meeting to highlight recent work in this field, as well as to integrate knowledge from other sources (such as investigators working on cell death in cancer and immune function) in the broad context of identifying con­ served pathways that coordinate life-and-death decisions in diverse cell types, became apparent. Therefore, the goals of the Scientific Committee of the International Symposium on Cell Death in Reproductive Physiology, spon­ sored by Serono Symposia USA, were already predetermined by this need. Simply stated, we sought to bring together for the first time a select cohort of reproductive biologists and cell death researchers, many but not all cho­ sen based on their pioneering efforts in elucidating the fundamental aspects of apoptosis in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, as a means to re­ view the current status of the field, foster new ideas, and promote scientific collaborations. In the ensuing chapters of this book, summaries of work dis­ cussed at the meeting are presented to emphasize both the diversity and the similarities in the occurrence and regulation of apoptosis in tissues of the male and female reproductive systems.
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Applied Cardiovascular Physiology

 Cardiovascular, Physiology  Comments Off on Applied Cardiovascular Physiology
Jan 012019
 

This book represents the collective efforts of several excellent,clini­ cian-scientists who have devoted many years of their lives and many hours in each day to the application of physiological principles to the bedside care of critically ill patients. The universal challenge of car­ diovascular instability confronts all health care providers who treat patients in an acute care setting. Whether that be in the field or Emergency Department, general ward, operating suite or intensive care unit, all patients carry a common theme of potential life-taking processes which must to identified and treated in a timely fashion or severe morbidity and death rapidly follow. Since the cardiovascular system subserves the body in maintain­ ing metabolic stability through global and regional blood flow at an adequate pressure to insure appropriate autoregulation of blood flow distribution, it would be difficult to describe the mechanisms of cardiovascular instability their diagnosis and treatment without placing them within the context of overall metabolism and tissue vi­ ability. Accordingly, this book has been grouped into four arbitrary subsets. First, we address issues of basic cardiovascular physiology. Classic developments of ventricular pump function and arterial re­ sistance are balanced with newer applications of ventriculo-arterial coupling, right ventricular function, and tissue oxygen delivery.

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Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology

 Cardiovascular, Physiology  Comments Off on Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology
Dec 192018
 

Written for students and professionals working within exercise science and related health professions, Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology systematically details the effect of acute and chronic exercise training on each component of the cardiovascular system: the heart, the vasculature, and the blood (including blood clotting factors).

Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the cardiovascular system and learn how to apply this knowledge to their work with athletes, other active individuals, and patients who have cardiovascular risk factors.

Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology highlights the complex interaction of the components of the cardiovascular system both at rest and during exercise. Using the latest scientific and medical research, this text presents engaging discussion of cardiovascular responses and adaptions to both acute and chronic aerobic and resistance exercise training. In addition, specific attention is paid to the beneficial effects of exercise on the components of the cardiovascular system and the mechanisms through which regular exercise provides cardioprotection.

Each chapter contains a summary to highlight key content, important terms bolded within the text for quick reference, and a key terms section at the end of each chapter defining all the bolded terms. In addition, sidebars within each chapter describe real-world examples and applications. Richly illustrated, Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology uses extensive figures and graphics to elucidate physiological mechanisms and to depict exercise responses and training adaptations.

This text is divided into two sections, beginning with a concise explanation of the structure and function of each component of the cardiovascular system. In the second section, readers encounter detailed discussion of the acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on cardiac function, vascular function, and hemostatic variables.

Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology provides a framework for understanding how the components of the cardiovascular system cooperate to support exercise and how those components adapt to and benefit from a systematic program of exercise training. By presenting current research that elucidates the specific effects and benefits of exercise on the cardiovascular system, Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology also offers readers possible future directions for research.

Human Kinetics’ Advanced Exercise Physiology series offers books for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as professionals in exercise science and kinesiology. These books highlight the complex interaction of the various systems both at rest and during exercise. Each text in this series offers a concise explanation of the system and details how each is affected by acute exercise and chronic exercise training. Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology is the second volume in the series.

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Occupational Physiology

 Physiology  Comments Off on Occupational Physiology
Dec 132018
 

In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems–such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress–this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field.

It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.

The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and reactions in eight selected common, but contrasting job types, the book explains relevant physiology in a novel way. Rather than being structured according to organs in the body, the book accepts the complex physiology of typical jobs and uses this as an entry. In addition to physiological facts, the book discusses risk factors for disorders and gives ideas on how to organize and design work and tasks so as to optimize health, work ability, and productivity.

Although many books cover physiology, they are based on a traditional anatomical structure (e.g., addressing the physiology of the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal system, and so forth) and require readers to synthesize this knowledge into real-life complex applications. Occupational Physiology is, instead, structured around a number of typical jobs and explains their physiologies, as complex as they may be. This approach, while still presenting the physiology needed to understand occupational life, demonstrates how to use this information in situations encountered in practice.

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