Fusion of Biological Membranes and Related Problems

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Feb 162019
 

Membrane fusion and targeting processes are tightly regulated and coordinated. Dozens of proteins, originating from both the cytoplasm and membranes are involved. The discovery of homologous proteins from yeast to neurons validates a unified view. Although much is known about the interfering proteins, the events occurring when two lipid bilayers actually fuse are less clear. It should be remembered that lipid bilayers behave like soap-bubbles fusing when meeting each other. In this respect interfering proteins should be considered as preventing undesirable and unnecessary fusion and eventually directing the biological membrane fusion process (when, where, how, and overcoming the activation energy). In this latest volume in the renowned Subcellular Biochemistry series, some aspects of fusion of biological membranes as well as related problems are presented. Although not complete, there is a lot of recent information including on virus-induced membrane fusion. The contributors of the chapters are all among the researchers who performed many of the pioneering studies in the field.
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Hepatitis Viruses

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Feb 152019
 

Hepatitis viruses research started more than fifty years ago. The names of hepatitis A and hepatitis B were introduced in 1947 when it became clear that there were two types of hepatitis that were transmitted either enterically or parenterally. It became apparent in the 1970’s that there were additional hepatitis viruses distinct from hepatitis A and hepatitis B, and thus, the term non-A, non-B hepatitis was introduced. The non-A, non-B hepatitis was further divided into post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis and enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis in the 1980’s. By the end of the 1980’s, both post-transfusion non-A, non-B virus and enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B virus had been identified and renamed hepatitis C virus and hepatitis E virus, respectively. Hepatitis delta antigen was first recognized as an antigen associated with hepatitis B virus infection in the 1970’s. In the early 1980’s, a virus was isolated and named hepatitis delta virus. These five different hepatitis viruses have distinct replication pathways and are major health concerns. They have become an important topic for teaching to graduate-level and medical students. Hepatitis Viruses provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of these viruses to readers. Each chapter is written by one of the top researchers in the field, and topics include: the epidemiology and the natural history of infection of these viruses, the molecular biology and the replication cycle of individual hepatitis viruses, host-virus interactions and the pathogenesis of hepatitis viruses, the immunology of hepatitis viruses, the relationship between hepatitis viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma, the viral vaccines and antiviral drugs. This book can serve as a supplemental reading material to graduate students and medical students, and to any researcher who would like to learn more about hepatitis viruses.
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Nanoimaging: Methods and Protocols

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Feb 152019
 

For more than a century, microscopy has been a centerpiece of extraordinary discoveries in biology. Along the way, remarkable imaging tools have been developed allowing scientists to dissect the complexity of cellular processes at the nano length molecular scales. Nanoimaging: Methods and Protocols presents a diverse collection of microscopy techniques and methodologies that provides guidance to successfully image cellular molecular complexes at nanometer spatial resolution. The book’s four parts cover: (1) light microscopy techniques with a special emphasis on methods that go beyond the classic diffraction-limited imaging; (2) electron microscopy techniques for high-resolution imaging of molecules, cells and tissues, in both two and three dimensions; (3) scanning probe microscopy techniques for imaging and probing macromolecular complexes and membrane surface topography; and (4) complementary techniques on correlative microscopy, soft x-ray tomography and secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Written in the successful format of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.Authoritative and accessible, Nanoimaging: Methods and Protocols highlights many of the most exciting possibilities in microscopy for the investigation of biological structures at the nano length molecular scales.
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Developing Synthetic Transport Systems

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Feb 142019
 

​Understanding the general laws of an effective system for the transport of substances in cells is an important goal of systems and synthetic biology and will help us to answer why the transport subsystem of a cell is arranged as it is. In addition, the construction of models for optimizing transport systems is of considerable importance in the early stages in the development of a functioning protocell. The aim of this book is to describe the latest techniques for the calculation of the optimal parameters of the transport subsystem of a cell at its maximum efficiency. The book will describe linear and nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, game theory for models of ion transport in different types of cells (e.g. mammalian cells, bacteria, plants and fungi). ​
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DNA Repair and Human Disease

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Feb 142019
 

DNA Repair and Human Disease highlights the molecular complexities of a few well-known human hereditary disorders that arise due to perturbations in the fidelity of diverse DNA repair machineries.
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Free-Radical-Induced DNA Damage and Its Repair: A Chemical Perspective

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Feb 132019
 

Understanding of the molecular basis of DNA damage and its repair has increased dramatically in recent years, and substantial knowledge now exists concerning the products arising from free-radical attack on DNA. Free-radical DNA damage may lead to mutations, cancer, and cell death. Free radicals have various sources, notably ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. In radiotherapy for cancer and with some anticancer drugs, use is made of cell death by excessive DNA damage. The mechanisms leading to products of free-radical attack which have been studied in models and with small double-stranded DNA fragments are discussed in detail, and the basics of the underlying free-radical chemistry are dealt with in separate chapters.
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Protein Arrays: Methods and Protocols

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Feb 132019
 

Protein arrays make possible the detection and quantitation of many proteins simultaneously, thus enabling researchers to ask fundamental questions about biological processes and to discover biomarkers that can be used diagnostically. In Protein Arrays: Methods and Protocols, innovative experimentalists describe in detail the methods they have developed to synthesize and construct protein arrays for basic and clinical research. The authors present protocols to create and immobilize the capture substrate-the first task in designing a protein array-using a variety of affinity capture reagents, including antibodies, peptides, aptamers, biotin, chemical reagents, and chromatographic substrates. Once synthesized, these arrays can be used to analyze protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation, as well as to discover and characterize potential diagnostic markers. Protocols to accomplish these tasks are also presented. The protocols presented follow the successful Methods in Molecular Biology™ series format, each one offering step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principle behind the technique, lists of equipment and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Diverse and highly practical, Protein Arrays: Methods and Protocols offers basic and clinical investigators a broad spectrum of approaches to the generation of protein arrays, as well as their uses in biomarkers discovery, in assay development, in clinical sample testing, in signal transduction analysis and characterization, and for creating the next generation of molecular tools.
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Medical Language for Modern Health Care, 4th edition

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Feb 122019
 

Medical Language for Modern Health Care, Fourth Edition, uses a Contextual Learning approach to introduce medical terminology within a healthcare environment. Chapters are broken into lessons that present and define terminology through the context of A & P, pathology, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as pharmacology. The text is setup in a way that covers one topic at a time, offering contextual content, tables, and exercises all in one place. Word Analysis and Definition Tables provide a color-coded guide to word parts deconstruction, definitions and pronunciations. Chapters covering Geriatrics, Oncology, Radiology, and Pharmacology offer comprehensive topics coverage. With unfolding patient case studies and documentation, students are introduced to various roles in the healthcare environment, illustrating the real-life application of medical terminology.
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Drug-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction

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Feb 122019
 

This is the definitive, one-stop resource on preclinical drug evaluation for potential mitochondrial toxicity, addressing the issue upfront in the drug development process. It discusses mitochondrial impairment to organs, skeletal muscle, and nervous systems and details methodologies used to assess mitochondria function. It covers both in vitro and in vivo methods for analysis and includes the latest models. This is the authoritative reference on drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction for safety assessment professionals in the pharmaceutical industry and for pharmacologists and toxicologists in both drug and environmental health sciences.Content: Chapter 1 Basic Mitochondrial Physiology in Cell Viability and Death (pages 1–35): Lech Wojtczak and Krzysztof ZablockiChapter 2 Basic Molecular Biology of Mitochondrial Replication (pages 37–70): Immo E. SchefflerChapter 3 Drug?Associated Mitochondrial Toxicity (pages 71–126): Rhea Mehta, Katie Chan, Owen Lee, Shahrzad Tafazoli and Peter J. O’BrienChapter 4 Pharmacogenetics of Mitochondrial Drug Toxicity (pages 127–139): Neil Howell and Corinna HowellChapter 5 Features and Mechanisms of Drug?Induced Liver Injury (pages 141–202): Dominique Pessayre, Alain Berson and Bernard FromentyChapter 6 Cardiovascular Toxicity of Mitochondrial Origin (pages 203–234): Paulo J. Oliveira, Vilma A. Sardao and Kendall B. WallaceChapter 7 Skeletal Muscle and Mitochondrial Toxicity (pages 235–249): Timothy E. JohnsonChapter 8 Manifestations of Drug Toxicity on Mitochondria in the Nervous System (pages 251–271): Ian J. ReynoldsChapter 9 Lipoatrophy and Other Manifestations of Antiretroviral Therapeutics (pages 273–290): Ulrich A. WalkerChapter 10 Nephrotoxicity (pages 291–310): Alberto Ortiz, Alberto Tejedor and Carlos CarameloChapter 11 Drug Effects in Patients with Mitochondrial Diseases (pages 311–324): Eric A. Schon, Michio Hirano and Salvatore DimauroChapter 12 Polarographic Oxygen Sensors, the Oxygraph, and High?Resolution Respirometry to Assess Mitochondrial Function (pages 325–352): Erich GnaigerChapter 13 Use of Oxygen?Sensitive Fluorescent Probes for the Assessment of Mitochondrial Function (pages 353–371): James Hynes, Tom?s C. O’Riordan and Dmitri B. PapkovskyChapter 14 Mitochondrial Dysfunction Assessed Quantitatively in Real Time by Measuring the Extracellular Flux of Oxygen and Protons (pages 373–382): David Ferrick, Min Wu, Amy Swift and Andy NeilsonChapter 15 Assessment of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex Function in Vitro and in Vivo (pages 383–395): Mark A. Birch?MachinChapter 16 OXPHOS Complex Activity Assays and Dipstick Immunoassays for Assessment of OXPHOS Protein Levels (pages 397–412): Sashi NadanacivaChapter 17 Use of Fluorescent Reporters to Measure Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition (pages 413–431): Anna?Liisa Nieminen, Venkat K. Ramshesh and John J. LemastersChapter 18 Compartmentation of Redox Signaling and Control: Discrimination of Oxidative Stress in Mitochondria, Cytoplasm, Nuclei, and Endoplasmic Reticulum (pages 433–461): Patrick J. Halvey, Jason M. Hansen, Lawrence H. Lash and Dean P. JonesChapter 19 Assessing Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis in Drug Toxicity Screening (pages 463–472): Edward E. McKeeChapter 20 Mitochondrial Toxicity of Antiviral Drugs: A Challenge to Accurate Diagnosis (pages 473–491): Michel P. de Baar and Anthony de RondeChapter 21 Clinical Assessment of Mitochondrial Function via [13C]Methionine Exhalation (pages 493–506): Laura MilazzoChapter 22 Assessment of Mitochondrial Dysfunction by Microscopy (pages 507–538): Ingrid Pruimboom?Brees, Germaine Boucher, Amy Jakowski and Jeanne WolfgangChapter 23 Development of Animal Models of Drug?Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity (pages 539–554): Urs A. Boelsterli and Yie Hou LeeChapter 24 Noninvasive Assessment of Mitochondrial Function Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (pages 555–574): Robert W. Wiseman and J. A. L. JenesonChapter 25 Targeting Antioxidants to Mitochondria by Conjugation to Lipophilic Cations (pages 575–587): Michael P. Murphy
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Current and Future Issues in Hemophilia Care

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Feb 122019
 

As haemophilia is a life-long condition, continuing supervision by a group of medical personnel is required. In many countries this is provided by comprehensive care haemophilia centres where staff of all specialities concerned with treatment- haematologists, paediatricians, nurses, physiotherapists, orthopaedic surgeons – have specialized knowledge.This new book is a definitive resource on the current aspects and issues around haemophilia. Complications of haemophilia care are well covered in chapters on inhibitors, and musculoskeletal problems, as are all the latest developments in the field of haemophilia.  Content: Chapter 1 History of Hemophilia (pages 1–5): Caroline Cromwell and Louis M. AledortChapter 2 Hemophilia Care in the Modern World (pages 6–9): Christine A. LeeChapter 3 Comprehensive Care Model in Hemophilia (pages 10–13): Prasad MathewChapter 4 When Should we Switch from On?Demand to Prophylaxis Regimen? (pages 15–20): Jose A. Aznar, Andres Moret, Lydia Abad?Franch, Ana R. Cid, Saturnino Haya and Felipe QuerolChapter 5 Prophylaxis in Children (pages 21–26): Marilyn J. Manco?JohnsonChapter 6 Prophylaxis in Adults with Hemophilia (pages 27–29): Victor Jimenez?Yuste, Emerito?Carlos Rodriguez?Merchan, Maria?Teresa Alvarez?Roman and Monica Martin?SalcesChapter 7 The Economics of Prophylaxis: Does Prophylaxis with Clotting Factor Represent Value for Money? (pages 30–34): Alec MinersChapter 8 The Transition of Care for the Young Adult Hemophilia Patient (pages 35–38): Pia PetriniChapter 9 Perinatal Clinical Care and Molecular Diagnosis in Hemophilia (pages 39–43): Carmen Altisent and Francisco VidalChapter 10 Managing the Mature Person with Hemophilia (pages 44–48): Savita Rangarajan and Thynn Thynn YeeChapter 11 Quality of Life in Hemophilia (pages 49–52): Eduardo RemorChapter 12 Immunology of Inhibitor Development (pages 53–59): Birgit M. Reipert, Christoph J. Hofbauer, Katharina N. Steinitz, Hans?Peter Schwarz and Frank M. HorlingChapter 13 Epidemiology of Inhibitors (pages 60–67): Johanna G. van der BomChapter 14 Early Tolerization to Minimize Inhibitors in PUPs with Hemophilia A (pages 68–73): Gunter Auerswald and Karin KurnikChapter 15 Prediction of Inhibitors in Severe Hemophilia (pages 74–78): H. Marijke van den Berg and Kathelijn FischerChapter 16 Genetic Basis for Inhibitor Development (pages 79–83): Johannes Oldenburg and Anna PavlovaChapter 17 Non?Genetic Risk Factors for Inhibitor Development (pages 84–88): Lisa N. Boggio and Mindy L. SimpsonChapter 18 Immune Tolerance Induction Programs (pages 89–96): Jan Blatny and Prasad MathewChapter 19 Prophylaxis in Hemophilia a Patients with Inhibitors (pages 97–101): Leonard A. Valentino and Guy YoungChapter 20 Treatment of Bleeding in FVIII Inhibitor Patients (pages 102–106): Paul L. F. Giangrande and Jerome TeitelChapter 21 Discordancy of Bypassing Therapy (pages 107–110): Jan AstermarkChapter 22 Experimental Studies on Hemarthrosis, Synovitis and Arthropathy (pages 111–116): Leonard A. Valentino and Narine HakobyanChapter 23 Assessment of Joint Involvement in Hemophilia (pages 117–120): Erik BerntorpChapter 24 Imaging of the Hemophilic Joint (pages 121–126): Carmen Martin?Hervas and Emerito?Carlos Rodriguez?MerchanChapter 25 Initial and Advanced Stages of Hemophilic Arthropathy, and Other Musculo?Skeletal Problems: The Role of Orthopedic Surgery (pages 127–132): Emerito?Carlos Rodriguez?Merchan, Victor Jimenez?Yuste and Nicholas J. GoddardChapter 26 Perioperative Thromboprophylaxis for Persons with Hemophilia Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery (pages 133–137): Gerard Dolan, Donna M. DiMichele and Emerito?Carlos Rodriguez?MerchanChapter 27 New Technologies for the Pharmacokinetic Improvement of Coagulation Factor Proteins (pages 139–145): Leonard A. ValentinoChapter 28 Current and Future Approaches to Gene Therapy in Patients with Hemophilia (pages 146–149): Maria?Teresa Alvarez?Roman, Monica Martin?Salces, Victor Jimenez?Yuste and Emerito?Carlos Rodriguez?MerchanChapter 29 New Developments in Hemophilic Arthropathy (pages 150–155): Emerito?Carlos Rodriguez?Merchan and Leonard A. ValentinoChapter 30 Physiotherapy Evaluation and Intervention in the Acute Hemarthrosis: Challenging the Paradigm (pages 156–161): Nichan Zourikian and Angela L. ForsythChapter 31 Laboratory Assays to Predict Response to Bypassing Agents (pages 162–166): Benny Sorensen and Claude NegrierChapter 32 Combination/Sequential Use of Bypassing Agents (pages 167–170): Alessandro Gringeri
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