Molecular Dynamics Analyses of Prion Protein Structures: The Resistance to Prion Diseases Down Under

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Aug 052018
 

Unlike bacteria and viruses, which are based on DNA and RNA, prions are unique as disease-causing agents since they are misfolded proteins. Prion diseases are called “protein structural conformational” diseases. This monograph is the book on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations nearly for all the known normal prion protein (PrPC) PDB entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and associations. Pig is a species that is largely resistant to prions, and chicken, turtles, frogs are species resisting prion infection too; firstly, this book will address all PrP strong immunity species (such as rabbits, dogs, horses, water buffaloes, pigs, chicken, turtles, frogs), compared with high susceptibility species. Other PrP models and doppel models are also MD studied in this book.
Secondly, all the mutants of mouse PrP and human PrP are well studied by this book. Mouse mutations in the β2-α2 loop and the C-terminal will bring clear structures with highly and clearly ordered loop structures. Human mutations will cause prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases (CJDs), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, fatal familial insomnia (FFI), etc. Deep MD analyses of mouse and human mutants are done in this book.

Thirdly, PrP binding with antibodies/compounds etc. is well MD studied in this book. The informatics of potential antiprion drugs known will be revealed. Lastly, cross-β structure PrP peptides are well studied.

This book is ideal for practical computing staff in the fields of computational physics, computational biology, computational chemistry, biomedicine, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, materials, applied mathematics and theoretical physics, information technology, operations research, biostatistics, etc. As an accessible introduction to these fields, this book is also ideal as a teaching material for students.

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HIV Vaccines and Cure: The Path Towards Finding an Effective Cure and Vaccine

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Aug 052018
 

This book provides a comprehensive review of the major barriers to HIV cure and vaccine. It covers the fundamental virology and immunology leading to HIV transmission, protection from infection and long term HIV persistence on antiretroviral therapy. In addition, strategies being tested to eliminate persistent HIV and the rational design of vaccines to induce protective immunity are covered. This book also discusses the challenges related to the design of clinical trials for testing the safety and efficacy of these innovative approaches. This book will provide a systematic overview and also discuss controversial issues for researchers in virology and immunology, as well as practicing physicians, and scientists in the pharmaceutical industry.

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Nonhuman Primate Models For Human Diseases

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Aug 052018
 

While research has enabled us to better understand the nonhuman primates, they have repaid that by repaid that by providing medical scientists with important tools for the study of human biomedical problems. This book is about those research tools. The book was designed by identifying areas of human medical research that are under intensive research study today. Authors were then selected based on their expertise at using nonhuman primates as models for the human condition. Each was asked to use as comparative an approach as models for the human condition. Each was asked to use a comparative an approach as possible, to provide the reader with knowledge relating to the usefulness of various nonhuman primate species to each specific research area.
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Meningitis and Encephalitis: Management and Prevention Challenges

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Aug 042018
 

Meningitis and Encephalitis are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. The differential diagnosis includes a wide spectrum of infectious and non-infectious etiologies, some requiring urgent therapy for survival. The current management challenges in patients with meningitis and encephalitis include a low sensitivity of meningeal signs, overutilization of unnecessary screening cranial imaging, delays in diagnosis of urgent treatable causes, a large proportion of unknown etiologies, low sensitivity of current microbiological techniques especially in the setting of previous antibiotic therapy, underutilization of available molecular diagnostic tests, and empiric antibiotic therapy and hospitalization for viral meningitis cases.
Even though there are published guidelines, compliance with them is not optimal and physicians do not follow standardized algorithms in their empirical approach. As meningitis and encephalitis is associated with high rates of adverse clinical outcomes, prevention, when feasible is of upmost importance. Adherence to protocols to prevent health-care associated meningitis and ventriculitis are effective but compliance with them is not uniformly performed.
This book seeks to improve outcomes for meningitis and encephalitis cases handled by physicians who may or may not be thoroughly trained for these challenges. The text introduces the current guidelines but also discusses the gaps that leave clinicians struggling to implement the most appropriate approaches for these particular neurological infections. Each chapter delivers the tools necessary to identify and adhere to the most appropriate diagnostic technique, management protocols, and prevention approach for each situation. All chapters conclude with discourse on future directions in research and quality improvement. Written by experts in infectious diseases, the book covers topics that are the most devastating, including healthcare-acquired infections, autoimmune encephalitis, and infections as they present in HIV patients.
Meningitis and Encephalitis is a well-rounded resource for all medical professionals encountering these neurological syndromes, including infectious disease specialists, neurologists, primary care physicians, and immunologists.

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Inflammatory Mechanisms in Mediating Hearing Loss

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Aug 022018
 


Common forms of preventable hearing loss are drug and noise-induced hearing loss which are believed to be produced by a similar mechanism. The generation of reactive oxygen species appears to be a common mechanism mediating hearing loss produced by these different sources. As such, a number of laboratories have focused their research towards identifying the sources of ROS production in the cochlea following administration of chemotherapeutic agents or noise exposure. This led to the identification of ROS generating enzymes, such as xanthine oxidases, nitric oxide synthase, and NADPH oxidases which are activated and/or induced during the development of hearing loss. A consequence of these findings was the implementation of antioxidants in preclinical studies for the treatment of hearing loss. These antioxidants have provided different levels of protection in animal and human studies, but none of these have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hearing loss.
More recently, it was shown that noise-induced hearing loss was associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells and mediators in the cochlea. This finding would suggest that noise could produce injury to the cochlea which stimulates local and/or circulating inflammatory cells. A similar finding was observed in the cochlea following administration of the anticancer drug, cisplatin. In addition, our laboratory and others have provided a plausible mechanism by which noise or chemotherapeutic agents could stimulate the inflammatory response. Surprisingly, this mechanism involves ROS activation of transcription factors linked to inflammatory processes in the cochlea. These studies have led to the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of hearing loss. Preliminary studies targeting inflammatory cytokines appear especially promising in preclinical studies.

A primary goal of this project is to describe our current understanding of the oxidant hypothesis of noise and drug-induced hearing loss and show how this relates to cochlear inflammation. Several different aspects of the cochlear inflammatory process will be discussed in detail, ranging from the sources of inflammatory cells, chemokines, inflammatory cytokines, and cochlea resident immune cells. Molecular pathways leading to activation of the local inflammatory process will be highlighted and treatment options will be discussed. The relevance of certain clinically used anti-inflammatory interventions, such as trans-typmanic steroids will also be discussed. Furthermore, we will examine recent patents focusing on the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of drug and noise-induced hearing loss.

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Polymers for Vascular and Urogenital Applications

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Aug 012018
 

In a carefully crafted, multidisciplinary, skillfully focused format, Polymers for Vascular and Urogenital Applications covers attributes of polymers used for vascular, urological, and gynecological materials. It provides a brief analysis of how the use of polymers in vascular and urogenital applications has evolved in the past five decades and outlines their common and specific functional requirements. The book provides a brief description of the evolving role of a particular family of materials and presents topics in highly integrated, well-balanced, authoritatively prepared segments on materials processing and in vitro and in vivo evaluation, complete with case studies. This book not only integrates clinical needs with current and future research responses but also provides a comprehensive overview to foster future innovation. It illustrates how two important and dissimilar areas in medicine can be interrelated by shared biomaterials and explores the clinical paradigm that establishes the driving force for innovation.
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Osteopathic Self-Treatment: Finding Health

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Aug 012018
 

Osteopathy is on everyone’s lips. In order to detect their patients’ problems, osteopaths employ comprehensive skill and knowledge regarding the structure and function of the human body. A little-known fact, however, is that the osteopathic techniques and principles are wonderfully suited for self-treatment, as only the patient himself has a direct link to his inner self. The first part of the book explains the principles of osteopathic treatment. The book’s main part is then the “osteopathic medicine cabinet” with 45 exercises for all areas of the body, from headaches to ankle sprains.
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Interpretation of Urodynamic Studies: A Case Study-Based Guide

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Jul 312018
 

This book is a comprehensive guide to lower urinary tract dysfunction that draws extensively on actual urodynamic traces and patient cases to ensure that the imparted knowledge will be readily transferable to clinical practice. The impressive collection of clinical cases is used to illustrate basic concepts of lower urinary tract function and to document urodynamic findings and typical patterns in a wide range of commonly encountered conditions. In addition, attention is drawn to frequent pitfalls and artifacts.
Readers will be able to assess their skill in reaching the correct diagnostic conclusion in each case, as in addition to the urodynamic trace a full set of information is provided on aspects such as patient history, physical examination, voiding diary, laboratory examination, imaging studies, and cystourethroscopy, thereby directly simulating real-life clinical practice. The presented cases are drawn from the large clinical database that Professor Seung-June Oh has prospectively accumulated during the past 16 years of clinical practice. The book will be invaluable for residents and other practitioners and will also be of interest for medical students.

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Collaborative Care: Interprofessional, Interagency and Interpersonal

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Jul 312018
 


Practitioners of all professions recognize the need and importance of collaboration, yet many find it far from easy to achieve. This book provides insights and understandings into the complexities of collaborative relationships so that individuals and groups can take constructive action to detect hindrances and attempt to overcome them.
The heightened interest in new ways of working together in health and social care has merited a new edition of this excellent text. Four new contributors have enlarged on the pioneering work of the late Sally Hornby, adding new material on collaborative relationships within organizational hierarchies of health and social care. Key themes such as the fight for resources, the tendency of professionals to behave defensively towards their clients, their departments and their resources, and the use of individual and group coping mechanisms are revisited. The new focus adds reflections on the effects of the professional and organizational contexts to these issues and provides new perspectives on the effectiveness of helping relationships in the year 2000 and beyond.

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Short Stay Management of Chest Pain

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Jul 312018
 


Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) continues to challenge our health care system in the complexity of presentation and the ever increasing number of patients exhibiting signs and symptoms of an acute coronary syndrome. Written by leading experts, Short Stay Management of Chest Pain provides scientific and clinical insights on the management of patients who arrive at the hospital with a presentation consistent with a potential acute coronary syndrome. Focusing on the cardiology aspects of chest pain, Short Stay Management of Chest Pain is a valuable tool for acute care physicians, nurses, and hospital administrators devoted to caring for this population. Short Stay Management of Chest Pain details the remarkable improvements in diagnostic accuracy and improved patient outcomes for patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndromes.

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