With its content taken from only the very latest results, this is an extensive summary of the various polymeric materials used for biomedical applications. Following an introduction listing various functional polymers, including conductive, biocompatible and conjugated polymers, the book goes on to discuss different synthetic polymers that can be used, for example, as hydrogels, biochemical sensors, functional surfaces, and natural degradable materials. Throughout, the focus is on applications, with worked examples for training purposes as well as case studies included. The whole is rounded off with a look at future trends.
This volume supplements Volumes 63, 64, 87, and 249 of Methods in Enzymology. These volumes provide a basic source for the quantitative interpretation of enzyme rate data and the analysis of enzyme catalysis. Among the major topics covered are Engergetic Coupling in Enzymatic Reactions, Intermediates and Complexes in Catalysis, Detection and Properties of Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds, Transition State Determination, and Inhibitors. The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for more than forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now with more than 300 volumes (all of them still in print), the series contains much material still relevant today–truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences.
Essentials of Medical Biochemistry, Second Edition:With Clinical Cases is the most condensed, yet detailed biochemistry overview available on the topic. It presents contemporary coverage of the fundamentals of biochemistry, emphasizing relevant physiologic and pathophysiologic biochemical concepts.
Pivotal clinical case studies aid in understanding basic science in the context of diagnosis and treatment of human diseases, and the text illuminates key topics in molecular immunology and hemostasis.
Users will find basic and fundamental concepts that will aid students and professionals in biochemistry, medicine, and other healthcare disciplines. the text is a useful refresher that will help users meet USMLE and other professional licensing examination requirements, providing thorough introductions, key points, multicolored illustrations of chemical structures and figures, fact-filled tables, and recommended reading lists.
Presents essential biochemical concepts within the context of their biological functions
Contains key clinical case studies in each chapter to enhance understanding of basic science and aid in further comprehension
Offers instructional overview figures, flowcharts, tables and multicolored illustrations
Includes integrated, recommended reading reference lists within the text
Provides an online ancillary package inclusive of PowerPoint images and more than 500 study questions to aid in comprehension and USMLE exam preparation
Features: The Biochemistry of Retinoid Signaling II The Physiology of Vitamin A Uptake Transport Metabolism and Signaling Subcellular Biochemistry
The role of vitamin A in living organisms has been known throughout human history. In the last 100 years, the biochemical nature of vitamin A and its active derivative, retinoic acid, its physiological impact on growth processes, and the essential details of its mechanism of action have been revealed by investigations carried out by researchers using vertebrate and more recently invertebrate models to study a multiplicity of processes and conditions, encompassing embryogenesis, postnatal development to old age. A wealth of intercellular interactions, intracellular signaling systems, and molecular mechanisms have been described and the overall conclusion is that retinoic acid is essential for life. This book series, with chapters authored by experts in every aspect of this complex field, unifies the knowledge base and mechanisms currently known in detailed, engaging, well-illustrated, focused chapters that synthesize information for each specific area.
In view of the recent information explosion in this field, it is timely to publish a contemporary, comprehensive, book series recapitulating the most exciting developments in the field and covering fundamental research in molecular mechanisms of vitamin A action, its role in physiology, development, and continued well-being, and the potential of vitamin A derivatives and synthetic mimetics to serve as therapeutic treatments for cancers and other debilitating human diseases.
Volume II is divided into nine chapters contributed by prominent experts in their respective fields. Each chapter starts with the history of the area of research. Then, the key findings that contributed to development of the field are described, followed by a detailed look at key findings and progress that are being made in current, ongoing research. Each chapter is concluded with a discussion of the relevance of the research and a perspective on missing pieces and lingering gaps that the author recommends will be important in defining future directions in vitamin A research.
Features: Nanozymes Next Wave of Artificial Enzymes 2016 By (author): Xiaoyu Wang, Wenjing Guo, Yihui Hu, Jiangjiexing Wu, Hui Wei
This book describes the fundamental concepts, the latest developments and the outlook of the field of nanozymes (i.e., the catalytic nanomaterials with enzymatic characteristics). As one of today’s most exciting fields, nanozyme research lies at the interface of chemistry, biology, materials science and nanotechnology. Each of the book’s six chapters explores advances in nanozymes. Following an introduction to the rise of nanozymes research in the course of research on natural enzymes and artificial enzymes in Chapter 1, Chapters 2 through 5 discuss different nanomaterials used to mimic various natural enzymes, from carbon-based and metal-based nanomaterials to metal oxide-based nanomaterials and other nanomaterials. In each of these chapters, the nanomaterials’ enzyme mimetic activities, catalytic mechanisms and key applications are covered. In closing, Chapter 6 addresses the current challenges and outlines further directions for nanozymes. Presenting extensive information on nanozymes and supplemented with a wealth of color illustrations and tables, the book offers an ideal guide for readers from disparate areas, including analytical chemistry, materials science, nanoscience and nanotechnology, biomedical and clinical engineering, environmental science and engineering, green chemistry, and novel catalysis.
For Researchers, Students, Industrial Professionals, and Manufacturers
Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: Fundamentals and Technologies is your guide to improved catalytic performance in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2).Written by electrochemical energy scientists actively involved in environmental research and development, this book addresses the biggest challenge to CO2 electrochemical reduction?low performance of the electrocatalysts?and outlines practical applications for the effective use of CO2. The authorsdiscuss the development of electrochemical energy devices and consider environmental protection on a macroscopic and microscopic scale. Presenting a systematic overview of CO2 electroreduction, they explain the fundamental principles, describe recent advances, and outline applications for future use.
In addition, the authors describe:
The main metal electrodes used for CO2 electroreduction
Current efficiencies for CO2 reduction products on different metal electrodes
The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to produce important chemicals
Three categories of reaction conditions: heterogeneous catalysis, low-temperatures electrolysis, and high-temperature electrolysis
Developments in CO2 hydrogenation reactions
Various analysis methods
Progresses in the theoretical electrochemical reduction of CO2
Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: Fundamentals and Technologies covers a variety of topics relevant to the successful use of CO2 electrochemical reduction and utilizes expert contributors at the top of their field. The book functions as a resource for students and professionals involved in materials science, electrochemistry, chemical, energy, electrical, and mechanical engineering.
Conjugated polymer composites with high dielectric constants are being developed by the electronics industry in response to the need for power-grounded decoupling to secure the integrity of high-speed signals and to reduce electromagnetic interference. Electrically conducting polymers are materials that simultaneously possess the physical and chemical properties of organic polymers and the electronic characteristics of metals. Multifunctional micro- and nanostructures of conjugated polymers, such as of pyrrole, have received great attention in recent years because they can polymerize easily and have high conductivity and good thermal stability. They, however, have some disadvantages such as brittleness and hard processability, which can be overcome by developing their nanocomposites. Nanofiber materials with different dielectric properties can be made from conjugated polymer composites and used in the electronics industry, in sensors and batteries, for electrical stimulation to enhance nerve-regeneration process, and for constructing scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering.
Electrospinning is a versatile technique that is used to produce ultrathin continuous fibers with high surface-to-volume and aspect ratios from a variety of materials, including polymers, composites, and ceramics. Conductive materials in fibrillar shape may be advantageous compared with films because of their inherent properties such as anisotropy, high surface area, and mechanical strength. They are of particular interest in electroactive composites as they can be efficiently distributed in an insulating polymer matrix to improve both electrical and mechanical properties. Combination of electrical properties with good mechanical performance is of particular interest in electroactive polymer technology.
This book covers the general aspects of electrospinning and discusses the fundamental concepts that can be used to produce nanofibers with the help of mathematical models and equations. It also details the methods through which different polymeric structures can be included in conjugated polymers during electrospinning to form composites or blends of conjugated polymer nanofibers.
The first contribution reviews the phytochemical, chemical, and biological literature on members of the ingenane class of diterpenoids from their first isolation in 1968 through 2015, highlighting unresolved issues both common to phorboids and specific to ingenol derivatives. The biogenesis of ingenol is discussed in the light of the Jakupovic proposal of a dissection between the formation of the macrocyclic Euphorbia diterpenoids and the phorboids, and the clinical development of ingenol mebutate is chronicled in the light of its “reverse-pharmacology” focus. The second contribution offers a comprehensive view of the chemical wealth and the taxonomic problems currently impeding chemical and biological investigations of the genus Laurencia. It addresses the botanical description and the growth and population dynamics of the genus, as well as its chemical diversity and ecological relations; the secondary metabolites as well as their sources of isolation; and finally the biological activity.
Features: Ultrafast Biophotonics By (author): P. Vasa, D. Mathur
This book presents emerging contemporary optical techniques of ultrafast science which have opened entirely new vistas for probing biological entities and processes. The spectrum reaches from time-resolved imaging and multiphoton microscopy to cancer therapy and studies of DNA damage. The book displays interdisciplinary research at the interface of physics and biology. Emerging topics on the horizon are also discussed, like the use of squeezed light, frequency combs and terahertz imaging as the possibility of mimicking biological systems. The book is written in a manner to make it readily accessible to researchers, postgraduate biologists, chemists, engineers, and physicists and students of optics, biomedical optics, photonics and biotechnology.