Observational Measurement of Behavior, Second Edition

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Observational Measurement of Behavior, Second Edition
Jul 202018

An essential textbook for anyone preparing to be a researcher, this comprehensive volume introduces graduate students to key principles of observational measurement of behavior. Based on a course the highly respected authors taught at Vanderbilt University and the University of Minnesota, this text delves deeply into a highly effective approach to observational measurement: systematic observation.

Students will master both the theoretical principles of systematic observation and recommended research methods and techniques. They’ll learn from practical examples that illustrate complex concepts, clear explanations of recommended research methods, definitions of key terms, and exercises and assignments that help them practice putting principles into action. Online companion materials include two free licenses for proprietary observational software that students can use to complete the exercises and assignments in this book.

Ideal for use in research methodology courses in diverse fields—including special education, communication sciences, psychology, and social work—this fundamental graduate text will prepare future researchers to skillfully collect, summarize, and communicate their observations of children’s behavior.

Fully understand key methods of observational research and measurement
Get comprehensive information on both foundational and advanced topics
Learn from real-world examples based on the authors’ extensive experience
Apply specific recommendations for effective techniques and best practices
SELECTED TOPICS COVERED: validity and reliability * representativeness * measurement theory * behavior sampling and coding * observer training * metrics of observational variables * modifying and designing coding manuals * sequential analysis * generalizability theory

ONLINE COMPANION MATERIALS: To enhance their courses, instructors will get a full package of online materials, including two licenses for observational software, video clips students can use to practice coding behaviors, a suggested schedule for a semester-long course, exercises for students, and assignments with corresponding grading rubrics.

About the Author
Paul J. Yoder, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Special Education, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37203

Dr. Paul Yoder has been studying the transition from prelinguistic to linguistic communication in multiple populations with disabilities for over two decades. He is a co-designer of Milieu Communication Teaching and has contributed to several studies examining the efficacy of this treatment. He teaches methods and measurement at Vanderbilt University.

Primary research activities of Frank J. Symons, Ph.D., are supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), and they focus on improving the assessment and treatment of severe self-injurious behavior among individuals with developmental disabilities and pervasive developmental disorders. Dr. Symons was a research scientist at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a postdoctoral fellow at the John F. Kennedy Center at the Peabody College of Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. He is the co-author of Behavioral Observation: Technology and Applications in Developmental Disabilities (Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., 2000).



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Behavioral Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Behavioral Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs
Apr 162018

This volume brings together the latest basic and clinical research examining the effects and underlying mechanisms of psychedelic drugs. Examples of drugs within this group include LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. Despite their structural differences, these compounds produce remarkably similar experiences in humans and share a common mechanism of action. Commonalities among the substances in this family are addressed both at the clinical and phenomenological level and at the basic neurobiological mechanism level. To the extent possible, contributions relate the clinical and preclinical findings to one another across species. The volume addresses both the risks associated with the use of these drugs and the potential medical benefits that might be associated with these and related compounds.
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Understanding Suicide: From Diagnosis to Personalized Treatment

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Understanding Suicide: From Diagnosis to Personalized Treatment
Mar 242018

Covers a range of key current issues relating to suicide
Discusses evidence on the role of social factors in the genesis of suicidal behavior
Presents innovative strategies for the prevention of suicide and the treatment of suicidal behavior
Explores the need for a personalized approach to suicide prevention

In this book international experts address a range of key current issues relating to suicide. The opening chapters discuss nosology, definitions, clinical determinants, and conceptual models of the suicide process and consider the evidence regarding potential biomarkers of suicide risk based on neuroscientific research. Adopting a neo-Durkheimian perspective, the role of various social factors in the genesis of suicidal behavior is then explored in depth. Practical user-friendly tools that facilitate risk assessment by clinicians are provided, and detailed consideration is given to efficient and innovative strategies for the prevention of suicide and the treatment of suicidal behavior, such as psychotherapy, psychopharmacological approaches, and effective organization of care, including surveillance and the use of online tools. The final part of the book focuses on the need for and development of a personalized approach within the field of suicide prevention.






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Anxiety, Depression, and Emotion

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Anxiety, Depression, and Emotion
Mar 222018

This unique volume focuses on the relationship between basic research in emotion and emotional dysfunction in depression and anxiety.






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Five Constraints on Predicting Behavior (MIT Press)

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Five Constraints on Predicting Behavior (MIT Press)
Mar 192018

 Scientists were unable to study the relation of brain to mind until the invention of technologies that measured the brain activity accompanying psychological processes. Yet even with these new tools, conclusions are tentative or simply wrong.

In this book, the distinguished psychologist Jerome Kagan describes five conditions that place serious constraints on the ability to predict mental or behavioral outcomes based on brain data: the setting in which evidence is gathered, the expectations of the subject, the source of the evidence that supports the conclusion, the absence of studies that examine patterns of causes with patterns of measures, and the habit of borrowing terms from psychology.

Kagan describes the important of context, and how the experimental setting – including the room, the procedure, and the species, age, and sex of both subject and examiner – can influence the conclusions. He explains how subject expectations affect all brain measures; considers why brain and psychological data often yield different conclusions; argues for relations between patterns of causes and outcomes rather than correlating single variables; and criticizes the borrowing of psychological terms to describe brain evidence. Brain sites cannot be in a state of “fear.”

A deeper understanding of the brain’s contributions to behavior, Kagan argues, requires investigators to acknowledge these five constraints in the design or interpretation of an experiment.

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Behavioral Neuroscience of Orexin/Hypocretin

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Behavioral Neuroscience of Orexin/Hypocretin
Mar 152018

This issue of Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience focuses on the neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) and brings together scientists from around the world who will provide a timely discussion of how this peptide regulates behavior. This is a fast-moving field, and with the incorporation of novel technologies, new breakthroughs are likely to continue.
For example, the use of optogenetic approaches has enabled the identification of the role of orexin-containing neurons in arousal states, critical for higher order functioning. From a clinical perspective, genetic polymorphisms in hypocretin/orexin and orexin receptors are implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders. In addition, advanced clinical trials are currently underway for orexin receptor antagonists in the treatment of insomnia and sleep disorders. We aim to capture a broad audience of basic scientists and clinicians.






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Endocannabinoids : Molecular, Pharmacological, Behavioral and Clinical Features

 Behavioral Sciences, Pharmacology  Comments Off on Endocannabinoids : Molecular, Pharmacological, Behavioral and Clinical Features
Feb 212018

The endocannabinoid system comprises at least two G-protein-coupled receptors (the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors) activated by marijuana’s psychoactive principle ^9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous ligands known as endocannabinoids. The apex of endocannabinoid research seems to have been reached with the clinical development, and also in some cases, the marketing, of synthetic or natural pharmaceuticals targeting this signalling system, which followed the understanding of the physiological and pathological role of endocannabinoids in several conditions, a role that was investigated first in rodent experimental models and then in humans.

Endocannabinoids: Molecular, Pharmacological, Behavioral and Clinical Features is a monograph that presents interesting manuscripts selected by the editor on the subject. Chapters in this book include original research or reviews which report the relevance of the endocannabinoid system by describing the results of experimental evidence about the neurobiological role of the endocannabinoid system. The main topics include, but are not limited to:

* The genetics of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and their tissue distribution, their splicing variants and polymorphisms, and the possible implications of all this in determining different behaviours as well as various pathological conditions and the addiction to substances of abuse.

* Pharmacological approaches describing the potential use in the central nervous system disorders of endocannabinoid-based drugs, such as cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation processes, and even plant cannabinoids other than THC and with a molecular mechanism of action.

* The role of the endocannabinoid system in several neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy.

The volume would be a great interest to neuropharmacologists, physiologists and biochemists who aim to learn about the endocannabinoid system in detail.




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The Brainstem and Behavior

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on The Brainstem and Behavior
Feb 202018

The monograph entitled The Brainstem and Behavior, edited by Robert Lalonde, reports on physiological functions undertaken by different parts of the brainstem. Pfaff, Bubnys, and Tabansky describe the role of the reticular formation on arousal, with information completed by Lemaire from a more clinical viewpoint. Berezovskii enumerates general control mechanisms underlying locomotion, while Lalonde focuses on coordinated movements and balance. Gonzalez handles brain regions affecting the specific movements of reaching and grasping, Coubard those affecting eye movements, and Strazielle those affecting orofacial movements. The influence of the brainstem on emotions is described in chapters headed by Serby, Derish, and Roane regarding visual, auditory, and somatosensory hallucinations, and in Almeida’s chapter regarding aggression. In the final part of the book, the influence of the brainstem on cognition is described in chapters headed by Williams regarding memory and Lalonde regarding executive functions. Thus, recent and basic information concerning the role of brainstem regions responsible for arousal, movements, emotions, and cognition is described from both clinical and experimental perspectives.

Series: Neuroscience Research Progress






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Underground Clinical Vignettes: Behavioral Science: Classical Clinical Cases for USMLE Step 1 Review

 Behavioral Sciences, USMLE  Comments Off on Underground Clinical Vignettes: Behavioral Science: Classical Clinical Cases for USMLE Step 1 Review
Jan 102018



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Synaptic Tagging and Capture: From Synapses to Behavior

 Behavioral Sciences  Comments Off on Synaptic Tagging and Capture: From Synapses to Behavior
Jan 082018



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