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Apr 262017
 

The Patient as Agent of Health and Health Care: Autonomy in Patient-Centered Care for Chronic Conditions


By (author): Mark Sullivan MD PhD

Patient-centered care for chronic illness is founded upon the informed and activated patient, but we are not clear what this means. We must understand patients as subjects who know things and as agents who do things. Bioethics has urged us to respect patient autonomy, but it has understood this autonomy narrowly in terms of informed consent for treatment choice. In chronic illness care, the ethical and clinical challenge is to not just respect, but to promote patient autonomy, understood broadly as the patients’ overall agency or capacity for action. The primary barrier to patient action in chronic illness is not clinicians dictating treatment choice, but clinicians dictating the nature of the clinical problem. The patient’s perspective on clinical problems is now often added to the objective-disease perspective of clinicians as health-related quality of life (HRQL). But HRQL is merely a hybrid transitional concept between disease-focused and health-focused goals for clinical care. Truly patient-centered care requires a sense of patient-centered health that is perceived by the patient and defined in terms of the patient’s vital goals. Patient action is an essential means to this patient-centered health, as well as an essential component of this health. This action is not extrinsically motivated adherence, but intrinsically motivated striving for vital goals. Modern pathophysiological medicine has trouble understanding both patient action and health. The self-moving and self-healing capacities of patients can be understood only if we understand their roots in the biological autonomy of organisms. Taking the patient as the primary perceiver and producer of health has the following policy implications: 1] Care will become patient-centered only when the patient is the primary customer of care. 2] Professional health services are not the principal source of population health, and may lead to clinical, social and cultural iatrogenic injury. 3] Social justice demands equity in health capability more than equal access to health services.
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Apr 262017
 

Sex, Lies, and Brain Scans: What is really going on inside our heads?


By (author): Barbara J. Sahakian, Julia Gottwald

The recent explosion of neuroscience techniques has proved to be game changing in terms of understanding the healthy brain, and in the development of neuropsychiatric treatments. One of the key techniques available to us is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which allows us to examine the human brain non-invasively, and observe brain activity in real time. Through fMRI, we are beginning to build a deeper understanding of our thoughts, motivations, and behaviours. Recent reports that some patients who have all indications of being in a persistent vegetative state show conscious awareness, and were able to communicate with researchers, demonstrate perhaps the most remarkable and dramatic use of fMRI. But this is just the most striking of a number of areas in which fMRI is being used to ‘read minds’, albeit in a very limited way.

As neuroscientists unravel the regions of the brain involved in reward and motivation, and in romantic love, we are likely to develop the capacity to influence responses such as love using drugs. fMRI studies have also been used to indicate that many people who would not regard themselves as racist show a racial bias in their emotional responses to faces of another racial group. Meanwhile, the reliability of fMRI as a lie detector in murder cases is being debated – what if the individual simply believes, falsely, that he or she committed a murder?

Sex, Lies, and fMRI takes readers beyond the media headlines. Barbara Sahakian and Julia Gottwald consider what the technique of fMRI entails, and what information it can give us, showing which applications are possible today, and which ones are science fiction. They also consider the important ethical questions these techniques raise. Should individuals applying for jobs as teachers or judges be screened for unconscious racial bias? What if the manipulation of love using ‘love potions’ was misused for economic or military ends? How far will we allow neuroscience to go? It is time to make up our minds.

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Apr 262017
 

The Global Pain Crisis: What Everyone Needs to Know®


By (author): Judy Foreman

Tens of millions of people around the world live with chronic pain – many in such severe pain they are disabled by it. The Institute of Medicine estimates that chronic pain costs the U.S. alone $560 to $635 billion a year in direct medical costs and lost productivity. Morphine, an effective painkiller, costs only three cents a dose, yet because of excessive regulation in many countries, it is unavailable to millions of people who need it, even at the end of life. The World Health Organization notes that in addition to the one million end-stage AIDS/HIV patients who can’t get morphine and other controlled medications, 5.5 million terminal cancer patients, nearly a million people suffering from accidents or violence, and an incalculable number of people living with chronic illnesses or recovering from surgery don’t have access to it, either. Furthermore, women, children, older people, and the poor are disproportionally affected by inadequate pain relief. Physicians know almost nothing about chronic pain, much less how to treat it, for two reasons: medical schools barely teach it and government institutions allot almost nothing to the pain research budget.

In The Global Pain Crisis: What Everyone Needs to Know®, renowned health journalist Judy Foreman addresses the most important questions about chronic pain: what is it, whom does it affect most, which pain relief methods in Western and alternative medicine are effective, what are the risks and benefits for opioids and marijuana, and how can the chronic pain crisis be resolved for good?

Foreman’s book is a wake-up call for a health problem that affects people across the globe, from all walks of life. Written in the classic, easy-to-read and quick reference style of the What Everyone Needs to Know® series, The Global Pain Crisis is a must-read for anyone whose life or work is affected by chronic pain.

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Apr 262017
 

Pickard’s Guide to Minimally Invasive Operative Dentistry


Features: Oxford University Press USA
By (author): Avit Banerjee, Timothy F. Watson

An ideal introduction to the theory and practical aspects of conservative dentistry, the tenth edition of Pickards’ Guide to Minimally Invasive Operative Dentistry is a must-have text for all dental students, new graduates and oral healthcare professionals alike. Written in an easy to understand and concise style, the authors introduce the essentials of dental disease before outlining how to collect patient information clinically in order to detect, diagnose, plan and deliver care.

Exploring key topics such as disease prevention and control, the principles of minimally invasive operative dentistry, contemporary restorative materials and procedures, this completely up-to-date revised edition integrates a thorough academic grounding for degree examination with an essential preparation for clinical practice for the whole oral healthcare team. Illustrated with step-by-step colour photos, common clinical procedures are clearly set out and labelled for beginners to learn. The tenth edition has been updated to reflect the latest evidence based guidelines for preventitative management and there is a focus on maintaining existing restorations and follow up/long term care.

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Apr 262017
 

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Oxford Rheumatology Library)


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (often abbreviated to SLE or lupus) is a systemic autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the body, causing the immune system to attack the body’s cells and tissue, and resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. This new addition to the Oxford Rheumatology Library series provides a practical approach to the assessment and management of patients with this complex, multisystem autoimmune disease to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease and its complications. It provides comprehensive but easy to assimilate reading for consultant rheumatologists, dermatologists, nephrologists, obstetricians and other specialists and their trainees, interested GPs, specialist nurses, and clinical trial teams both in hospitals and contract research organizations.
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Apr 262017
 

Goodman’s Neurosurgery Oral Board Review


This book will educate and prepare neurosurgery candidates who are preparing for the Neurosurgery Oral Board exam, the final step prior to board certification. It will also serve as a primer for the Goodman oral board course, a bi-annual course sponsored by the AANS. The book begins by initially describing the format of the oral board exam in the US. It then examines some of the concepts and techniques in the question-answer process that forms the major premise of the oral board exam. Each chapter contains 4-5 case presentations, which are organized similarly to how oral board questions are presented, with a brief history / physical and relevant imaging studies. The authors provide detailed analysis of these cases, as well as key references for each case with the salient conclusions from each referenced paper.

While there are a few books that cover the board exams, none of them are specifically designed as case-based resources for oral board exam preparation. Goodman’s Neurosurgery Oral Board Review focuses specifically on the oral board exam. Its primary intended audience is US, Canadian and British neurosurgeons who are preparing for the oral board, but it will also be a very appropriate resource for those who are trying to maintain competence in neurosurgery.

Dr. Levi’s edited text is authored by a group of long-standing, dedicated members to the course who have taught it for the last 15 years. With their extensive experience in teaching for the board exams, the skillset they bring to this book is unrivaled.

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Apr 262017
 

Principles of Evolutionary Medicine


Features: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS ACADEM
By (author): Peter Gluckman, Alan Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Felicia Low, Mark Hanson

Evolutionary science is critical to an understanding of integrated human biology and is increasingly recognised as a core discipline by medical and public health professionals. Advances in the field of genomics, epigenetics, developmental biology, and epidemiology have led to the growing realisation that incorporating evolutionary thinking is essential for medicine to achieve its full potential. This revised and updated second edition of the first comprehensive textbook of evolutionary medicine explains the principles of evolutionary biology from a medical perspective and focuses on how medicine and public health might utilise evolutionary thinking. It is written to be accessible to a broad range of readers, whether or not they have had formal exposure to evolutionary science.

The general structure of the second edition remains unchanged, with the initial six chapters providing a summary of the evolutionary theory relevant to understanding human health and disease, using examples specifically relevant to medicine. The second part of the book describes the application of evolutionary principles to understanding particular aspects of human medicine: in addition to updated chapters on reproduction, metabolism, and behaviour, there is an expanded chapter on our coexistence with micro-organisms and an entirely new chapter on cancer. The two parts are bridged by a chapter that details pathways by which evolutionary processes affect disease risk and symptoms, and how hypotheses in evolutionary medicine can be tested. The final two chapters of the volume are considerably expanded; they illustrate the application of evolutionary biology to medicine and public health, and consider the ethical and societal issues of an evolutionary perspective. A number of new clinical examples and historical illustrations are included.

This second edition of a novel and popular textbook provides an updated resource for doctors and other health professionals, medical students and biomedical scientists, as well as anthropologists interested in human health, to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary processes underlying human health and disease.

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Apr 262017
 

Positive Neuroscience


How do we thrive in our behaviors and experiences? Positive neuroscience research illuminates the brain mechanisms that enable human flourishing. Supported by the John Templeton Foundation’s Positive Neuroscience Project, which Martin E. P. Seligman established in 2008, Positive Neuroscience provides an intersection between neuroscience and positive psychology.

In this edited volume, leading researchers describe the neuroscience of social bonding, altruism, and the capacities for resilience and creativity. Part I (Social Bonds) describes the mechanisms that enable humans to connect with one another. Part II (Altruism) focuses on the neural mechanisms underlying the human ability and willingness to confer costly benefits on others. Part III (Resilience and Creativity) examines the mechanisms by which human brains overcome adversity, create, and discover. Specific topics include: a newly discovered nerve type that appears to be specialized for emotional communication; the effects of parenting on the male brain; how human altruism differs from that of other primates; the neural features of extraordinary altruists who have donated kidneys to strangers; and distinctive patterns of brain wiring that endow some people with exceptional musical abilities. Accessible to a broad academic audience, from advanced undergraduates to senior scholars, these subjects have generated a fascinating and highly convergent set of ideas and results, shaping our understanding of human nature.

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Apr 262017
 

Understanding Your Migraines: A Guide for Patients and Families


By (author): Morris Levin, Thomas N Ward

Twelve percent of the world’s population is affected by migraines, tallying up to more than 35 million people in the US alone. The World Health Organization lists it among the top ten most disabling conditions. But even with those numbers, why are we still plagued with this disorder and what can we do, in our daily lives, to manage this devastating and demoralizing brain illness?

Understanding Your Migraines: A Guide for Patients and Families addresses, in clear prose:
· The impact migraines can have on your life, and your family’s;
· How to communicate and work with your medical team to make sure nothing is overlooked in your quest to conquer your migraines;
· Non-medicinal and new experimental ways to reduce migraine symptoms;
· The special and important cases of dealing with migraine during pregnancy, in children, and in adolescents;
· How you can find online and community resources for learning more.

Understanding Your Migraine: A Guide for Patients and Families brings together the expertise of two eminent headache neurologists, Dr. Morris Levin and Dr. Thomas Ward, who have each been caring for headache patients for more than 35 years. Peppered with patient cases to show how to successfully deal with a variety of headache issues, the authors address common concerns in an easy-to-read and comprehensive manner, making this a must-have on every bedside table.

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Apr 262017
 

Emergency Dermatology, Second Edition


There are many emergencies that the dermatologist needs to address and many cutaneous diseases in the emergency room that require rapid dermatologic consultation. The dermatologist is frequently the ?rst physician to examine such patients before a hospital admission and also the ?rst to identify a critical situation, stabilize the patient, and choose urgent and appropriate intervention. Both the practicing dermatologist and the emergency physician will benefit from the revised and updated edition of this text from top international dermatologists, enabling them to hone their diagnostic skills, expand their knowledge and understanding of pathologic events, and learn treatment options available for acute life-threatening skin diseases in this complicated and multifaceted ?eld.

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